Chapter 36: River Campus Panorama
Year by year University operating costs, quite apart from capital outlays, spurted upward: escalating salaries, wages, and fringe benefits for academic personnel and for non-teaching employees-carpenters, groundsmen, librarians, hospital help, cooks, typists, heating engineers, and the like--comprised, of course, the largest item in the annual budget. But a multitude of other costs had to be met: scholarships, fellowships and student loans, for example, books and journals for the libraries, laboratory equipment, supplies for offices and residence halls, furniture and grand pianos, surgical instruments, trucks and tools, grants for research and publication, to mention only a few.
In effect, the University was likewise in the hotel and restaurant business, operating living quarters and serving meals by the tens of thousands each week in dining halls and cafeterias and to patients at the Medical Center. Enterprises ranged from maintaining classrooms, laboratories, and libraries to a naval armory, a huge cyclotron, two hospitals, a distinguished art collection, and the Eastman Theatre.
Basic statistical data on finance for the de Kiewiet decade ran this way in rounded figures:
|Overall operating expenses in millions (exclusive of major capital construction)||$13.1||$15.2||$35.3|
|Operating expenses in the branches of the University in millions:|
|Income, in percentages, was derived from these sources:|
|Book value of University assets in millions were:|
|Endowment funds were invested as follows:|
Over the decade, the proportion of income derived from endowment and the hospital declined somewhat, with corresponding rises in other titles. Almost every year outlays for the College of Arts and Science, the Eastman School after 1957, the Medical School, and the Strong Hospital exceeded income, deficits being met from accumulated reserves and the general endowment fund. 1
Because of the increasing volume of work--more applications to be processed, wider visitation of secondary schools on recruitment errands, more personal interviews with applicants, more careful scrutiny of requests for scholarships and loans--the staff of the admissions and student aid office was enlarged. The director, Charles R. Dalton, 1920, was joined in 1951 by Caro Fitz-Simons Spencer, 1927, who was directly responsible for women applicants, and in 1953 by George L. Dischinger, Jr., 1949, who succeeded to the directorship when Dalton stepped upstairs (1963) to the office of University Secretary.
Since there was a growing tendency for youths to apply to several colleges, the admissions office extended acceptances to far more than could be taken care of and prayerfully hoped that "guesstimates" on the proportion of those who actually enrolled would not outrun housing and instructional facilities. de Kiewiet properly observed that an admissions officer able to furnish an entering class of the size desired must be both shrewd and lucky--and a "tremendous asset." When a national publication listed (1959) Rochester among a score of high standing private colleges that had room for many more qualified students, Dalton promptly rejoined in the negative.
Illustrative of what actually took place in admissions is a profile of the class of 1965, admitted in 1961. Applications for admission to the College of Arts and Science were filed by 2, 652 young men and women from some 1,040 secondary schools. Of that total, admission was offered to 1,495, and 660, coming from 378 schools, accepted; eighty-three entered under the so- called Early Decision Program. Thirty percent, somewhat higher for men than women, received financial aid from the University; eighty-four percent ranked in the top fifth of their secondary school class and an additional eleven percent in the second fifth. As further evidence of the academic promise of the class, three out of four whose homes were in New York state held Regents scholarships, won in competitive examinations. In terms of geographical distribution, twenty-two percent of the class of 1965 lived in metropolitan Rochester, fifty-two percent elsewhere in New York State, and the rest in other states and foreign countries. At the time of matriculation fifty-two percent of the men and seventy-eight percent of the women opted for the arts (premedical and predental students included) twenty-two percent of the men and seven percent of the women for science, twenty-two percent of the men for engineering, four percent of the men and one percent of the women for business administration, and six and eight percent of the women for education and nursing, respectively. 2
To attract a greater number of exceptional students, those who gave "promise of making the best use of their educational opportunity in the interest of society," the University created a set of Rochester National Scholarships. Patterned somewhat on the Bausch and Lomb awards, the plan provided stipends as high as $6,000 (in 1961-1962, $8,000) for six men and three women (at least two of the nine engineering aspirants) in the College of Arts and Science, four in the Eastman School, and two each in the Medical and Graduate Schools. Notification of the new scholarship program was promptly despatched to a thousand secondary schools. By trustee decision the long established Sherman Fellowship, awarded in alternate years for a year of graduate study in economics and hitherto restricted to men, was opened to women as well. 3
Because of the staggering rise in the cost of operating the college, student expenses in the 1950's mounted steeply--in a way duplicated in colleges and universities all across the country. What happened may best be illustrated by the cold statistics of 1951-1952 (the first de Kiewiet year), 1955-1956 (the year of the merger), and 1961-1962 (after the resignation of de Kiewiet).
|Men||$600 (1)||$850 (2)||$1,275 (2)|
|Women||$600 (1)||$850 (2)||$1,275 (2)|
|Activity Fee (athletic and non-athletic)|
|Books and Supplies||$30--$40||$30--$50(3)||$30--$50 (3)|
|Minimum total costs||$1,450||$1,850||$2,450|
|Average total costs||$1,550||$2,000||$2,600|
|Commuting student costs||$800--$1,000||$1,350||$1,900 (1)|
(1) For laboratory courses, minor charges were made.
(2) No laboratory fees were charged.
(3) For engineering students this item cost $50 more.
(4) A health fee of $25 included; for women and male freshmen $5 more to finance social affairs in residence halls; and $1.80 was added for a mailbox for each student.
(5) For residents of women's cooperative dorms, at Prince Street, room and board in 1951-1952 came to about $325.
Tuition rates were hiked twice while the class of 1959 was in college, which evoked vigorous protests. Concurrently with advance in charges, University appropriations for scholarships rose materially, to ensure that no youth of ability and promise would be excluded for financial reasons; for the year 1961-1962 the undergraduate scholarship budget amounted to $380,000. Grants ranged from $100 to $2,000, depending on the financial situation of the applicants, and thirty percent of the Freshmen entering that year were recipients of stipends. In addition to university-awarded scholarships, scholarly aid was given by the state and national governments, and other agencies. Low-interest (with interest deferred until after graduation) loans were available, and part-time jobs on campus or off, helped cover part of student expenses. 4
If it is true that University teachers conceive of their careers more as a way of life than a means of earning a living, it appears likewise true that after the Second World War the mercantile spirit permeated academic Edens to an unparalleled degree. Compared with other learned professions, the material rewards of university personnel were not high, and their real incomes failed to keep pace with rising levels in the United States generally. Competitive pressures, as President de Kiewiet never tired of pointing out, imparted urgency to salary adjustments and widening of the fringe benefit system, if scholars and scientists of ability and promise were to be retained and others like them attracted to the staff; important, too, were library and laboratory resources and provisions for graduate instruction. "It is no longer possible," de Kiewiet reiterated, "to recruit and maintain a reputable faculty without good opportunities for research and graduate instruction." Money for these essentials, not always easy to justify to the laity, had its place, as has been seen, in the Development Fund.
Salaries moved upward and fringe benefits were significantly broadened; in 1954, compensation to senior professors averaged about $7,600 and for instructors $3,700. Eight years later the average professorial salary had climbed to $12,500 (or $14,350 if fringe benefits were taken into account), scientists generally doing better than other scholars. Life insurance coverage was made more adequate, and a group medical program was introduced in which faculty members were required to participate as also in group life insurance. Tuition grants for faculty and their children--extended also to non-academic employees after five years of service--who chose to study at the U. of R. were liberalized, and a loan fund at a low interest rate was authorized for faculty boys and girls who preferred to matriculate at another college, but few applications were actually received. More popular was a program providing free tuition for faculty children on a reciprocal basis with other colleges. But this plan, too, proved unsatisfactory--too many wished to matriculate at a few outstanding colleges--and in 1959 the trustees adopted a substitute arrangement providing cash awards for faculty boys and girls to cover tuition charges in institutions of their choice. 5
Reimbursement for the entertainment of undergraduates in faculty homes, partial subsidization of the faculty club, and hospital discounts were additional types of special compensation. To encourage productive scholarship, the grants-in-aid appropriation was increased and supplemented by several summer fellowships. Many professors, furthermore, obtained assistance for research from the federal government, from foundation fellowships, or from allocations by industrial companies. Though no formal regulations governed sabbatical leave, it was standard policy to grant leaves for scholarly enterprises; if the absence was for half a year, full salary was paid, or half salary for an entire year.
As a special inducement to excellence in undergraduate instruction, Trustee Curtis set up (1962) an annual cash prize to be awarded at Commencement to an outstanding teacher. To confer distinction upon professors who had rendered long and eminent service and were nearing retirement, and in the hope that it might be helpful in getting money for endowed chairs, the title of Distinguished Senior Professor was created (1960); Noyes in chemistry and Fenn at the Medical School were the original recipients of this high honor. 6
A new dimension was introduced in retirement planning, an outgrowth of the well established TIAA which assured a fixed-dollar annuity to emeritus faculty. To contend with the devil of inflation, a plan known as the College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) went into operation in 1952; premiums paid into the fund were invested in common stocks and retirement annuities rose or fell in accordance with the income that the securities generated each year. Together TIAA and CREF yielded benefits after the age of sixty-five more attuned to costs of living than the fixed-dollar income from TIAA alone and were less volatile than a variable annuity alone. It was mandatory for teachers of the rank of assistant professor or above to participate in TIAA, with participation in CREF optional. If they chose, teachers could assign up to ten percent of their salaries to the two funds, though not more than half (three-quarters after 1967) might be placed in CREF; the University matched the premiums paid by each teacher. Approximately half of the Rochester participants elected CREF and generally allocated half of their yearly retirement payments to it. (Faculty members were covered, of course, by the national social security measures.)
At the time of the consolidation of the colleges, a large share of River Campus faculty business was initially considered, and some routine matters settled, by faculty communities, of which there were ten: academic honesty, administrative, educational policy, examinations, graduate study, grants-in-aid, library, honors division, nominations to committees, and tenure. At meetings of the A.A.U.P. discussions on compensation vied with exchanges of views on academic freedom and anti-intellectualism; as of 1956 only eighty members of the University faculties belonged to the professional organization, two-thirds of them from the River Campus, and as a rule only a corporal's guard attended meetings. (During the next decade membership increased threefold.) A hallmark of the time was the high mobility of academic personnel," of the forty-four senior professors in arts and science as of 1951-1952, only twenty-one were actively at work at the U. of R. ten years later.
Despite increasing competitiveness in recruitment, substantial gains in faculty were registered, and a number of important appointments were made-specialists equipped to probe deeply into a selected phase of their disciplines, to break through previously accepted boundaries of knowledge. The Haloid (later Xerox) firm of Rochester financed (1952) a new chair in international economics, and, thanks to the generosity of Rochester's R. T. French Company and its parent in Great Britain, an exchange professorship was established with the University of Hull. The plan was inaugurated in 1953 with the coming to Rochester of A. Geoffrey Dickens, a historian of distinction, and the following year Wilbur D. Dunkel was the first Rochester scholar to teach at Hull.
To direct studies in non-western civilizations, remarked upon farther along, Vera M. Dean entered the faculty in 1954. A nationally known authority on world affairs and an experienced college teacher and editor, she was accredited to the department of government (later political science). During her Rochester period, Mrs. Dean and a set of talented collaborators produced The Nature of the Non-Western World (1957), New Era in the Non-Western World (1957), and West and Non-West (1963). Mrs. Dean herself brought out New Patterns of Democracy in India (1959) and Builders of Emerging Nations (1961).
After teaching government in 1952-1953, W. Theodore Bluhm left the University, but rejoined the faculty in 1957; his researches, as shown in Theories of the Political System (1965), were centered upon ideas and ideologies of government and he was the recipient of a Fulbright research professorship to Austria. To the teaching force in philosophy M. Jerome Stolnitz was added in 1952; a specialist in aesthetics, he published Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art Criticism (1960) and helped to edit the journal Aesthetics. Winner of Fulbright and Guggenheim awards, Colin M. Turbayne, joining the philosophy department in 1957, was perhaps best known for studies on the Irish philosopher George Berkeley whose Works on Vision (1963) he edited, and he also wrote The Myth of Metaphor (1962).
Instruction in psychology was broadened with the coming of Vincent Nowlis and his wife, Helen H., in 1951, and Robert M Boynton the following year. Whereas Vincent Nowlis conducted investigations on the analysis of mood and on variables in the manipulation of mood, Mrs. Nowlis studied various aspects of human behavior, served as adviser to foreign students, dean of students, and director of a national drug education program. When Brown University, her Alma Mater, conferred (1967) an honorary doctorate of science on Mrs. Nowlis, she was hailed as "teacher, research scientist, trusted counselor to students both foreign and American, both male and female." Her colleague Boynton carried out extensive and productive researches on human vision, writing more than sixty scientific articles, and when a Center for Visual Science was instituted (1963) he undertook the directorship.
Ralph A. Raimi, mathematician, came to the University in 1952 and made himself an authority on functional analysis and topological linear spaces. William F. Eberlein, an expert in functional analysis, was added to the mathematics faculty in 1957, as was Leonard Gillman three years later. An accomplished pianist as well as mathematician, Gillman achieved high scientific competence in topology and on rings of continuous functions, a subject on which he was co-author of a book (1960).
In 1953 Arnold W. Ravin began a fifteen-year tenure in biology, and during two years he filled the office of dean of the college. An unusually accomplished teacher, his chief research interest was the chemical basis of heredity; among his more than fifty major publications was The Evolution of Genetics (1965). 7
To the geology department Robert B. Hall, Jr., was brought in 1952 as an economic geographer, concerned especially with Canada and Japan. He was awarded a Fulbright fellowship to Japan; eventually he transferred to the history department and in 1967 became director of a new East Asian Language and Area Center. Reference has earlier been made to Robert G. Sutton, a U. of R. alumnus, who joined (1954) the department of geology. Coming to Rochester in 1956, geologist Lawrence W. Lundgren contributed articles on petrology and the structure of metamorphic rocks to scientific journals.
Three long-term appointments were made in physics: Arthur Roberts (1950), Morton F. Kaplon (1951), and Everett M. Hafner (1953). Roberts, who after a decade moved on to the Brookhaven and Argonne National Laboratories, did distinguished work in nuclear physics. Kaplon concentrated on cosmic ray, fundamental particle, and high-energy aspects of physics. A gifted spokesman on the aesthetics of science, Hafner also investigated primary cosmic radiation and the polarization and scattering of nucleons at low and high energies; for a year he worked in India as a consultant on the teaching of physics. Involved with astrophysics, Malcolm P. Savedoff (1953, full time 1957) wrote learned articles about the interstellar material atmosphere of variable stars. 8
Major appointments in the late 1950's expanded and strengthened the department of English. Known for his study of nineteenth century literature, particularly for his work on the novel, George H. Ford wrote Dickens and his Readers (1955), Double Measure (1965), and edited several other books. R. James Kaufmann, interested in Elizabethan drama and modern intellectual history, was the author of Richard Brome and the editor of various works; an early winner of the Curtis and other prizes for distinguished teaching of undergraduates, Kaufmann eventually shifted his allegiance to the history department. Concerned with eighteenth century English literature and criticism, James W. Johnson published learned articles on his specialty and Logic and Rhetoric (1962), while his colleague Richard M. Gollin achieved recognition for his writings on Romantic poetry and the Victorian novel, including a study of Arthur Hugh Clough (1967). Howard C. Horsford, a specialist in American literature and intellectual history, edited Herman Melville's Journal of a Voyage to Europe... (1955) and shared in producing the Oxford Anthology of English Poetry (1956). 9
Mason Wade, an expert on Canadian history, came to the University in 1955 as director of a Canadian studies program, described below; among his writings were The French Canadians (1955), the standard book on the subject, Canadian Dualism (1960), and The French Canadian Outlook (1964). A second historian, Hayden V. White, had research interests in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the philosophy of history; in addition to scholarly articles, he was a co-author of The Emergence of Liberal Humanism (1966). His colleague, Harry D. Harootunian, specialized in the history of Japan (where he studied on a Fulbright grant) and collaborated in the offerings on non-western civilization. 10
In anticipation of work leading to the doctorate in economics, Lionel McKenzie came to Rochester in 1957; numerous articles on mathematical economics, international trade, and welfare economics won him election as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Another econometrician, Richard N. Rosett, was particularly interested in national income analysis; he was consulted for technical advice and shared in writing Working Wives (1958). Robert R. France an economist concerned with labor problems, concentrated his researches on labor market analysis and wage determination and growth economics; he also functioned as an impartial arbitrator of labor disputes and engaged in civic activity. After serving in several lesser administrative capacities, France was appointed in 1963 to the newly created post of associate provost.
A sheaf of papers in professional journals, especially on the Austrian novelist Robert Musil, was written by Wilhelm Braun, who came as a teacher of German in 1956. A new political scientist, Richard F. Fenno, a prodigious research worker, brought out The President's Cabinet (1959), The Power of the Purse (1966), and was co-author of National Politics and Federal Aid to Education (1962).
After holding a research associateship at the University, Russel F. Green was appointed (1955) to the staff in psychology; his studies on changes in intellect in adult years resulted in more than a score of publications. A second psychologist, E. Roy John, whose investigations in and writing on neurobiology brought him an international reputation, conceived the idea of a Center for Brain Research and saw it turned into reality, as is explained later. 11
Three major appointments were made in the engineering teaching force: Shelby A. Miller, who wrote extensively on gas dispersion and filtration, Daniel W. Healy, Jr., in electrical engineering and concerned with solid state physics and a potentially productive alliance between engineering and medicine, and in mechanical engineering--later mechanical and aerospace sciences--Martin Lessen, an internationally respected authority on fluid mechanics and propulsion. 12
In 1951 Paul E. Bitgood returned to the physical education staff and in time became varsity football coach, a post which, unluckily, ill health forced him to give up. Experienced in coaching basketball and soccer, Lyle D. Brown began his career at the University in 1955 and was soon put in charge of the varsity teams in both sports; his Offensive and Defensive Drills for Winning Basketball (1965) was warmly welcomed in athletic circles. As mentor in baseball and Freshman football, Donald C. Smith joined the physical education department in 1955 and subsequently he was promoted to head coach of football. 13
The advancement of knowledge, the growth of the student population, undergraduate and post-baccalaureate alike, pressures by industrial and professional groups, the permeation of educational philosophy by the interdisciplinary approach--that is, experts from one area of research teaming up with their counterparts in other disciplines--and the particular specialties of individual professors, old and new, combined to produce unprecedented expansion in the curriculum; ever more narrow specialization involved ever greater fragmentation of traditional disciplines. At one sitting the faculty of the College of Arts and Science approved twenty-three new courses and at another forty-seven more in one fell swoop!
On the initiative of the President, and reflecting his "world-awareness" outlook, a Canadian Studies program was inaugurated with the thought that it might evolve into an Institute of Canadian Studies. It was envisaged as a clearing house on Canadian affairs, with specific instruction on the economy and the geography of the Dominion, to which, thanks to a five-year subsidy from the Rockefeller Foundation, Canadian history was soon added (1955). For teaching and research, library collections on Canada were quickly expanded, and annual workshop conferences shared in by leaders from both sides of the border were organized. Donald W. Gilbert, original director of the program, was succeeded in that role by Mason Wade, the historian. 14
More exciting, however, was unique interdisciplinary instruction on non-western societies, a venture into areas of the world hitherto only scantily taught, in order to afford undergraduates an opportunity to acquire a "reasonable awareness of the Chinese experience, the Indian experience, and so forth." Arguing the case for this interesting though short-lived innovation, de Kiewiet contended that recent global developments had thrown up a radically new view of the world, comparable with the transformation wrought in Western Europe by the epochal voyages of discovery of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; it was incumbent on the college curriculum to take into account what had happened.
Wrote the President, "...we have broken diplomatically and, possibly, strategically out of our isolationism, but we have not yet made in our educational process a comprehensive transition from our conception of the world through our intellectual attachment to Europe, and perception of the world from our own new central position in that world." There was no intention of creating an independent institute on non-western affairs, nor of offering post-baccalaureate training, but a large sum was sought (though not obtained) to augment the faculty and library resources on non-western lands. A competing proposal for a course obligatory for Seniors, to prepare them better for the contemporary world scene of which they would soon be apart and patterned on a "Great Issues" course at Dartmouth College, was turned down by a faculty organizing committee.
At the outset, the "world awareness" program embraced introductory work on the non-western world and "Contemporary India," together with existing instruction on Asia and Russia," additional offerings followed shortly, and, supported by a foundation grant, courses in the summer were arranged for public school teachers. But student elections were disappointingly slim and, like the Canadian Studies, the adventure in non-western civilizations petered out soon after de Kiewiet retired from the presidency. Before that, however, the attempt to "globalize" the University had attracted imitation by other institutions of higher learning. Attempts to organize an institute of social relations, emphasizing sociology and psychology, came to naught. In memory of the late Donald W. Gilbert, an annual seminar or lecture on economics or a related theme by a distinguished guest was established (1958). 15
From Cornell de Kiewiet brought a laboratory technique for learning modern languages, to supplement and correlate with conventional classroom instruction. Live conversations by students in French, German, and Spanish were recorded and played back, in order to develop greater fluency in speaking. Assistants who were natives of the countries involved cooperated in the use of "the tools of the technicians to build a broader and more effective humanism," a program which was pronounced eminently successful. Before long, television was invoked to teach spoken French to interested viewers in the Rochester area. 16
Partly in response to requests from Rochester industries, the ill-starred venture of the 1940's in electrical engineering was resurrected (1956) on a four-year program. Since approximately a quarter of the male undergraduates was then enrolled in engineering, the arts faculty requested that a limit should be placed on the admission of Freshmen pointed for engineering careers. Then came (1961) a comprehensive Center for Brain Research, an interdisciplinary enterprise, associated with the department of psychology but semi-autonomous. One of the very few institutions of its kind in the United States, the Center would carry on research and furnish graduate training on the methods by which the human brain processes, stores, and recalls information. Foundations and government agencies were counted on to defray part of the cost of this expensive undertaking--and did so. Quickly winning international recognition, the Center attracted post-doctoral fellows from Europe and the Orient as well as from the Americas. Also cutting across departmental lines was (1960) an East Asian Studies Program, which in a sense competed with and eventually replaced the experiment in non-western civilization. And the desirability of setting up a space science center came under serious study (1962). 17
Testifying to widening curricular horizons were alterations in several departmental titles. Thus, all foreign languages were combined (1953) into a single department, and the department of fine arts replaced the older alignment of art and archaeology. Economics and business administration was split (1957) into two independent departments, physics became (1957) physics and astronomy (which included astrophysics), and anthropology was joined (1957) to sociology, only to be changed to anthropology and sociology (1960). (In honor of the eminent Rochester scientist, Lewis Henry Morgan, an annual series of lectures on anthropology was established in 1962.) The department of government was rebaptized (1959) as political science, and after lengthy study departments of language and linguistics and of foreign and comparative literature replaced (1962) the previously unified foreign languages, embracing Chinese, Latin and Greek, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. A presidential decision in 1956 transferring the department of education from the College to the University School stirred up a hornet's nest in the faculty. Astonished by this "arbitrary action outside the established forms of consultation," a vigorous protest was lodged with de Kiewiet, who gave assurances of full consultation before similar decisions were made in the future. Called the Division of Education, the new unit assumed responsibility for all phases of training of teachers and other public school personnel. 18
On the reasoning that existing advisory services for undergraduates were quite inadequate, that "you cannot train a brain and neglect a personality," and to salvage students whose unsatisfactory academic performance seemed unrelated to basic ability and intelligence, the President secured adoption in 1954 of the principle that education must be treated as a unified process. "Students must have a sense of fullness and comfort in their academic environment," de Kiewiet commented, "which classroom activities will provide only in part." So a broad experiment was launched to aid the "whole student" in the "infinitely difficult adjustment" to his total environment, social, physical, moral, and religious. Headed by Dean Habein, a committee on student welfare undertook to coordinate health and medical services, counseling and remedial work, and religious guidance. These measures, it was anticipated, would reduce the proportion of undergraduates--about one-third of all--who fell by the wayside without completing work for a degree. To augment the program of counseling and guidance, Robert H. Beaven, shortly to receive a doctorate from the University of Chicago, was named University chaplain and director of religious activities. 19
Faculty approval was given for qualified Freshmen to be granted advanced placement, and to Juniors who wished to study abroad if they affiliated with recognized institutions; in the year 1957-1958, for example, seventeen undergraduates acted on this option, enrolling in the universities of Paris (Sorbonne), Rennes, Madrid, Geneva, Munich, London, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Mexico City. Without coming to conclusions, the virtues and disadvantages of an academic year of four quarters and of reducing the normal student commitment from five to four courses a semester were debated by the professoriate (1955). 20
In 1959 the faculty changed the title of the "Honors Division" to "Honors Program;" a part-time director was appointed, and presently a Common Room--a large, pleasant meeting place--for participants was made available. This unit, which won hearty acclaim in the Middle States Association evaluation discussed in the next chapter, graduated 111 students between 1955 and 1962, a large majority of them in history and English; in 1961-1962 Honors study was offered in comparative literature, economics, foreign languages, political science, and philosophy as well as in English and history, and the program that year enrolled fifteen Seniors and forty-two Juniors. A questionnaire to Honors graduates revealed that a very high percentage of them proceeded to post-baccalaureate studies," enthusiasm for the Honors Program was remarkably strong and remarkably uniform. 21
To permit greater study in depth and independent research, a four course plan replaced in 1961 the traditional five courses for B.A. candidates; classes met for three fifty minute periods a week and the equivalent of a fourth period was spent in independent work. By special permission, an undergraduate might take five courses without payment of additional tuition. It was soon clear that the four course pattern aroused both "enthusiasm and antagonism. " At the same time, classroom instruction for many teachers was reduced from nine to six hours a week--a boon for research workers. 22
Other significant action by the College of Arts and Science faculty substituted large lectures in underclass English courses for small sections (an innovation that provoked much student disfavor), revised and updated the faculty Book of Regulations and Procedures, many of whose rules had been rendered obsolete by the reunion of the colleges or had been quite forgotten, prescribed who might share in faculty deliberations with or without voting rights, set faculty meetings on a bimonthly basis, and ordered that a summary of transactions at meetings should be mailed to each member. Also in this period, the faculty converted the prestigious Committee on Educational Policy into the Committee on Academic Policy, wider in scope than its predecessor and authorized to consider in an advisory capacity questions of broad academic policy, slightly altered the regulations on professorial tenure, and defined more sharply the status of assistants and research associates. By trustee decision, no relative of a teacher could be engaged by the same department without the explicit sanction of the president or his deputy, and teachers would retire on July first following their sixty-fifth birthday, although tenure might be extended, if the corporation assented, for one year at a time. 23
The Institute of Optics suffered a heavy loss in 1953 when its leader and pacesetter, Brian O'Brien, resigned to become associated with an industrial concern. However, the staff was greatly expanded, reaching twenty-six in 1961, a fourfold increase in a decade, and notable accomplishments were reported in research; among the novelties were laser demonstrations for classroom instruction, multiple photon absorption, interferometry, and orbiting astronomical telescopes. To meet the needs of Rochester firms, evening courses in nearly all branches of optics were offered. A joint program with physics for the Ph.D. turned out poorly and was soon canceled, but new program in applied optics was introduced (1955). The trustees rejected a fresh proposal for a school of optometry on the logic that there was no real need and that the operating costs would be too heavy. 24
The NROTC and AFROTC continued as integral parts of the College of Arts and Science, and men who enrolled were eligible for draft deferment. The NROTC was made up of two types of students: first, regulars, who received tuition, books, uniforms and a stipend of $600 each year, from the U.S. Navy, and who were committed to three cruises or periods of summer training, lasting six to eight weeks. On completion of work for the baccalaureate degree, they were commissioned Naval ensigns, or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, and went on active duty for four years. The second group, contract students, were given uniforms, naval science textbooks and, as upperclassmen, subsistence allowances. In return, they spent part of one summer on a training cruise and served, if so ordered, as officers for two years in the Naval Reserve or three years in the Marine Corps Reserve; alternatively, if summoned, they had to spend two years on active duty. The class of 1962, for instance, had twenty regular and thirty-two contract students. (Civilians might pursue courses in naval science and would then become eligible to enter the NROTC as contract students.) Stand-By , the NROTC student paper, published items of technical importance or social interest, and on the 100th anniversary of the graduation of Admiral William Harkness, 1858, patron saint of the unit, as it were, a biographical tribute was printed.
Major NROTC social functions (including reviews and springtime military ball) were shared with the AFROTC, whose enrollment hovered just over the hundred mark. The program was divided into two parts: underclass or basic training, for which students were issued uniforms, and underclass or advanced work. Men in this group had one summer training period, received complete uniforms and $600; upon satisfactory fulfillment of academic and air force requirements, they were commissioned second lieutenants in the Air Force Reserve. From Washington came word that the AROTC would be discontinued in 1957, but the order was soon revoked.
Both military units took regular service drill during the academic year, and by way of variant NROTC midshipmen were given (1961) a day's training on a converted mine sweeper brought to Lake Ontario. Undergraduates who signed up as platoon leaders in the Marine Corps were exempt from drill, but they were obligated to devote six weeks in each of two summers to formal training and they, too, were deferred from the draft. 25
University School strove to satisfy appetites for higher learning on the part of individuals who lacked the credentials for admission to the college or who could only devote part of their time to studies. Provision was made for instruction in areas of knowledge for which there was a reasonable demand, as, for instance, in the photographic arts, the Eastman House Museum staff cooperating; but efforts to set up an institute of local government floundered. Toward the close of the de Kiewiet administration non-credit courses were made available in real estate, various types of insurance, English for foreigners, more effective reading, the modern dance, and--skin diving and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus!
Candidates who completed work for a bachelor's degree were concentrated heavily in general studies, with business administration and accounting following along. Concurrent with hikes in tuition charges in the College, fees for courses in University School were increased and compensation to teachers adjusted. While registration fluctuated, the broad trend was upward; 2,170 full and part-time students were enrolled in 1951-1952, 2,670 in 1953-1954, and 3,228 in 1961-1962. Financed by the federal government, a few veterans of the Korean War enrolled.
Attempts were put forth to enliven the recreational and extracurricular activities of the School, though only a small fraction of the students (almost all of them, of course, part-time) manifested more than a tepid interest in such things. Aspirants for degrees who took a substantial roster of courses were permitted to play on U. of R. intercollegiate teams. Curricular clubs were formed, dances organized, and the student newspaper, The Campus Crier , carried news designed to quicken institutional loyalties. A University School alumni association was organized (1951), and contributions by graduates to yearly fund-raising were distributed among needy students in the form of scholarships or loans. A column in The Campus Crier was given over to the doings of the graduates; in 1954 they joined forces with the undergraduates in a University School dance, and in 1956 held their first Commencement time reunion. 26
Under the jurisdiction of the University School, a Computing Center was established (1955), starting off with a desk-sized computer installed in Taylor Hall; in 1956 a larger system was installed and the Center offered regular instruction in computer programming; in 1961 a big IBM 7070 computer was acquired, giving the University an exceptionally well-equipped service essential for carrying out a variety of research projects. 27
The Summer Session, along with the University School, moved to the River Campus in 1955. Publicity about summer studies called attention to the opportunities for recreation now available--the extensive University athletic facilities, the playing fields and picnic grounds in the nearby Genesee Valley Park, and boating on the Genesee River.
Here as well as anywhere else, the continuing story of the Memorial Art Gallery (distinctive among university-connected art museums) may be introduced. The transfer of women undergraduates to the River Campus released space for Gallery uses that had previously been occupied by the fine arts department, and the former women's faculty club was converted into studios and a creative workshop. In keeping with tradition, the Gallery offered the public a broad range of classes, lectures, and exhibitions; and the lending service enabled students, among others, to beautify their living environments. Permanent collections served as valuable resources for teaching fine arts at the River Campus. The Gallery was also the scene of an annual Rochester--Finger Lakes Exhibition of Art and an International Salon of Photography. The air of a rural carnival surrounded yearly outdoor "clothesline" shows, with paintings hung on trees, walls, and an iron fence-sales of art work brought commissions to the Gallery treasury. Membership rolls increased to more than 6,000, and the University continued to contribute substantially to the maintenance of the Gallery and its staff, which grew to forty-five members, twenty of them full time.
In 1962 the relationship of Gallery and University was defined with greater exactitude, and the trustees endorsed a capital fund drive to obtain money for a much-needed renovation of the Gallery's facilities and their enlargement by the construction of a one-story wing to the east of the existing building. Because of delays of one sort and another, this addition which doubled the exhibition space of the original gallery was not ready until 1968. 28
Ably abetted by George I. McKelvey, 1950, who had overall charge of relations with alumni and alumnae in the early 'fifties, the de Kiewiet dynamism extended to the alumni organizations of the University. Like Topsy, the associations had grown independently, so that six separate groups existed-- operating at times at cross-purposes--and to a very large degree activities for alumni were geared to those residing in metropolitan Rochester. Each of the six associations maintained its own records, arranged its own programs, issued its own publication, conducted its own fund-raising campaigns, if any, and three had regional clubs of their own. On occasion, temporary committees made up of representatives from all six grappled with alumni interests of University-wide concern.
In the name of greater strength, cohesiveness, and effectiveness, a constitution was adopted in 1952 setting up a University of Rochester Alumni Federation--embracing all men and women graduates--over and above the six constituent units. Management of the Federation was entrusted to a board of governors elected for three-year terms (originally two year) by the several associations and the regional clubs. Officers were chosen by the board of governors from its own ranks, and an executive secretary exercised general direction. By and large, any regular student who had completed one year (later raised to two) of work in either of the colleges or the Eastman School or an equivalent amount of study in the University School was eligible for inclusion on the alumni roster.
Apart from furthering the general welfare of the University and serving as the channel of communication between graduates on the one hand and the administration and the trustees on the other, the Federation was specifically charged with coordinating the activities of the constituent associations, with tendering advice to the U. of R. Development Fund office, and with supervising the election of alumni members of the board of trustees. The right of graduates to elect three--after 1964 six--trustees for a term of three years (extended to six in 1959), it may be recalled, had been approved by the board of trustees, and the first election was conducted in 1953. In that year, too, the custom of awarding a citation on Commencement day to one or more graduates for distinguished service to Alma Mater was initiated. In the Commencement season of 1957, the Federated Alumni inaugurated the custom of making awards-a scroll and a handsome U. of R. chair--to professors or administrators who had contributed in signal ways to the life of the students. More lightheartedly, to mark de Kiewiet's first four years in Rochester, at the 1955 Commencement the President was declared an honorary alumnus and given the degrees of "Doctor of Administrative Agility, Master of Suave Solutions, Bachelor of Uninhibited Ubiquity. " 29
As another feature of the "new look" in graduate affairs, a new alumni relations office was instituted (1955), with a director and two assistant directors. The latter served as executive secretaries of the alumni and the alumnae, respectively, of the College; the Eastman School graduate association had its own executive secretary. Agreeing that "the understanding, support, and spokesmanship of the graduates possessed vital importance," President de Kiewiet instructed the director to report directly and frequently to him. Records of all alumni and the budget for alumni activities were centralized and publications were combined. 30
In point of fact, the organization of records on alumni and alumnae in an orderly and accurate form had started in 1951, when it was discovered that over 3,000 individuals not on the existing rolls deserved to be regarded as graduates! Keeping information up-to-date required an appreciable clerical staff, for upwards of 23,000 names (by 1962 over 26,000, a third in metropolitan Rochester) were involved, about a third of the addresses changed every year, and hundreds of additional names came on to the roster annually. Headed by Mildred Smeed Van de Walle, 1923, the records office developed into a model operation, imitated by other institutions. Nothing resulted, alas, from repeated suggestions to publish a new directory of graduates to replace the grossly outdated issue of 1928. What had been an annual Christmas buffet and concert for alumnae only turned (1952) into a delightful and popular party for alumni as well. (An interesting statistic, compiled a decade later, indicates that nearly two out of five alumnae had married U. of R. men.) 31
Harmon S. Potter, 1938, assumed the directorship in 1956, following lengthy and valuable experience on the University staff, notably in the Admissions office. Instructed to develop the policies and expand the activities of the Alumni Federation, Potter hammered out a personal interpretation of the functions of the director and his co-workers and of the role of the alumni in the ongoing life of the University. Relations between the Alumni Federation and the six constituent associations were promoted along healthy lines, the alumni and alumnae groups of the College of Arts and Science were merged (1962) into a single body, clarification was effected in the responsibilities of the standing committees of the board of governors, and links with administration officers were broadened. Upon the completion of the Administration Building, alumni operations radiated from quarters there. 32
The official alumni organ, the Rochester Review , ''a show-window" of the University, kept alumni and alumnae informed on all aspects of University affairs, carried feature articles by faculty and alumni, included class notes, and prided itself on excellent photography. The recipient of numerous awards, for three years in a row it won a place among the top fifteen American publications of its kind. Complement and supplement to the Review was a newsletter, issued for the constituent associations about four times a year, starting in 1956 and running on for half a dozen years or more.
Since an ever higher percentage of the graduates resided beyond metropolitan Rochester, efforts were put forth to bring more of them closer to Alma Mater by means of regional clubs; only six clubs possessed much vitality in 1956 (the Philadelphia group was outstanding), but by 1962 the number had jumped dramatically to thirty-one, located in key cities from Boston to San Francisco. A "Federated Regional Handbook" was prepared (1957; 1959) to guide officers in the conduct of meetings, intellectual spice at meetings was furnished in the form of lectures and discussions by Rochester professors, and regional bodies were given greater opportunities to recruit outstanding youths in their localities by recommendations of candidates for scholarships.
Growing interest among graduates in the welfare of Alma Mater was attested by rising participation in the annual balloting for office of alumni elected University trustee, and annual giving showed these impressive gains: 33
|River Campus Colleges||$40,742||$113,565||$144,220|
|Nursing||did not participate||$2,070||$4,652|
|University School||$642||$ 1,794||$ 6,855|
In October, 1960, the Alumni Federation united with the University administration in sponsoring the first of a series of All-University autumn convocations, held concurrently with the traditional "homecoming." By way of preliminary, some forty alumni and alumnae returned to the campus for two days of meetings, tours, and the like to familiarize them more fully with what was going on and the University goals that had been set or were being defined. For the initial convocation, the general theme of "Perspectives on Peace" was chosen. The high point was an assembly at the Eastman Theatre, accompanied by an academic procession, and addressed by James Phinney Baxter, president of Williams College; honorary degrees were conferred, together with citations to graduates who had rendered unusual service to Alma Mater. If attendance at this Eastman occasion was disappointing, the response to seminars held on the River Campus was distinctly pleasing to the organizers. A football game, an informal supper, and a dance completed the autumn alumni weekend. 34
A group of alumni and other friends, making substantial annual financial contributions to the University, established in 1960 the U. of R. Associates, a group which met each year at a "Dinner of the Sixties'' to discuss the University's problems and prospects, and to witness the award of an Associates medal, authorized by the trustees in 1964, to a member who had given outstanding service.
It was a matter of gratification to the University family that among American institutions of higher learning Rochester stood (1955) third in the proportion of graduates in engineering listed in Who's Who in Engineering. Edward G. Gibson, 1959, was chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for training as a scientist-astronaut, a "moon man." Another graduate of the 'fifties who quickly attained distinction was William E. Dooley, 1954, an Arts college graduate, a baritone with the Metropolitan Opera-a big talent to be reckoned with, " a New York music critic laconically commented, A University citation bestowed upon him in 1968 spoke with pride "of the fame already achieved and assurance of new eminence to come." 35
Two winners of the doctorate in physics, Susumu Okubo, 1958, a specialist in the high energy theory of elementary particles, and George E. C. Sudarshan, 1958, concerned especially with quantum field theory and high energy physics, were appointed to professorships at Rochester and Syracuse University respectively.
The pattern of Commencement observances underwent a good deal of revision and abridgement. At the June, 1953, weekend, for example, the Phi Beta Kappa Society held its annual meeting on Friday afternoon and the fraternities reuned in the evening. On Saturday morning alumni associations held business meetings, followed by a report from the President on the state of the University; class reunion parties at noon preceded an intercollegiate baseball game and an alumni "get-together" around a refreshment tent at which beer was served, despite the strenuous objections of some. In the evening alumni and alumnae dined in the Palestra, decorated so as to simulate a frolicsome Parisian rendezvous, and a dance followed. Next year on Saturday evening an outdoor smorgasbord supper was ventured and Eastman School graduates presented a concert in Strong Auditorium.
Instead of the customary two days, formal graduation exercises were telescoped into one--on Sunday. In the morning a Baccalaureate service was held in Strong Auditorium, loud speakers carrying the proceedings to families and friends on the Eastman Quadrangle, The Hopeman Chime pealed forth while the academic procession streamed from the Library to Strong and upon its return, and again in the afternoon when the procession left the Library for Commencement rites in Fauver Stadium. The board of governors of the Alumni Federation, incidentally, from 1953 onward marched in the academic parade, reviving in a measure a usage that had prevailed when the University was young.
Flags and banners atop the stadium fluttered gaily; in the center of the gridiron a covered platform was erected for University administrators, trustees, and honored guests, with a large banner displaying the U. of R. seal as background. Palms and flowers stood in front of the platform and at foot ramps on either side, and an electric organ furnished music. Faculties, alumni representatives, and serried ranks of graduating students from the several branches of the University occupied rows of chairs extending from the platform westward to the stadium stands, where wellwishers of the graduates were seated. A sparkling blue sky and golden sun welcomed an audience of 5,000 at the first outdoor Commencement in 1953, a far larger crowd than could have been accommodated in the Eastman Theatre, scene of the graduation ceremonies for three decades. (In case of rain--as sometimes happened in future years--exercises were transferred to the Eastman Theatre. Beginning in 1959, rained-out Commencement ceremonies were held at the Community War Memorial--large enough to seat all, and with ample parking facilities.) A reception on the Eastman Quadrangle for new graduates, their families, and friends rounded out the Commencement weekend. 36
To heighten the drama, the colorful pageantry of Commencement, the president, the chairman and the secretary of the board of trustees, the University marshal, and University orator wore (1954) distinctive academic gowns--crimson or black with gold and dandelion yellow trimmings--acquired from a venerable English robemaker. It was the function of the orator to cite candidates for honorary degrees or for an alumni distinction, replacing the tradition of the presentation of each candidate by a different administrator or professor. As a rule, four or five honorary degrees were presented, a musician and a medical scientist invariably among the recipients. In 1951, for the first time in nearly three decades, a doctorate of divinity was conferred--in striking contrast to the University's early years when the D.D. was the only honorary doctorate (the LL.D. was first awarded at Rochester in 1861). 37
With the increasing number of earned degrees to be awarded, the graduation ceremony tended to become excessively long. To keep it within bounds, the trustees decided, after animated discussion, that only one honorary degree would be conferred at Commencement (a practice not consistently adhered to). Other individuals of distinction might be honored at autumn convocations, begun in 1960, and they would ordinarily be expected to make a contribution to the educational process at the University in the form of a lecture or a scientific demonstration. The makeup of the committee to nominate candidates for honorary recognitions was refashioned, or, more exactly, restored to an older form in that three trustees were appointed to deliberate with three professors and the President or his deputy. 38
Footnotes for Chapter 36
- Treasurer's Report, 1951-1952, 1954-1955, 1961-1962.
- R D&C, September 14, 1956. "Report [mimeographed] of the President, 1958-1959." Rhees Library Archives. Martin Mayer, "Good Colleges that are not Crowded," Harper's Magazine, CCXVIII (1959), 44-49. Charles R. Dalton, "Report on Undergraduate Admissions and Analysis of the Freshman Class," September, 1961. Rhees Library Archives.
- "Rochester National Scholarships," 1956. Rhees Library Archives. R D&C, March 27, 1956. Executive Committee Minutes, June 6, 1962.
- Annual Catalogue (College of Arts and Science), 1951-1952, 42-44; Ibid., 1955-1956, 29-31; Annual Catalogue (Undergraduate Studies), 1961-1962, 36-38. Campus-Times, III, November 26, 1957, IV, March 3, 1959.
- RAR, XVI (1955), no. 4, 5. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet, January 31, 1958, November 5, 1958. de Kiewiet Papers.
- Executive Committee Minutes, September 14, 1960.
- R T-U, April 2, 1954 (Dean). Campus-Times, V, October 20, 1959; R T-U, May 31, 1962 (Turbayne). R D&C, August 16, 1959 (Vincent Nowlis). Ibid., June 9, 1967 (Helen H. Nowlis). R T-U, November 18, 1959; Campus-Times, October 19, 1963 (Boynton). R D&C, April 21, 1963 (Ravin).
- R T-U, January 11, 1956 (Hall). Campus-Times, VII, November 17, 1961 (Lundgren). R D&C, May 12, 1960 (Roberts). R D&C, June 20, 1958; R T-U, January 11, 1960 (Kaplon). R T-U, June 8, 1962; R D&C, September 23, 1964 (Hafner). R T-U, February 14, 1964 (Savedoff)
- Campus-Times, III, February 11, 1958; R D&C, April 29, 1963 (Ford). Campus-Times, VII, September 22, 1961; R D&C, October 30, 1967 (Kaufmann). R D&C, April 15, 1961 (Johnson).
- Campus-Times, VIII, April 10, 1962 (Wade). R D&C, November 2, 1962 (White). Ibid., June 2, 1968 (Harootunian).
- R T-U, February 8, 1957; University Record, March, 1968 (McKenzie). R D&C, October 30, 1966 (Rosett). R D&C, February 8, 1963; R T-U, May 10, 1963 (France). Campus-Times, II, November 30, 1956 (Braun). R D&C, February 15, 1960; New York Times, April 22, 1962 (Fenno). R D&C, October 28, 1966 (Green). R T-U, August 26, 1963 (John).
- R T-U, August 29, 1955; The Rochester Indicator, XXIII (1955), 14 ff. (Miller). R T-U, February 15, 1965 (Healy). R D&C, September 30, 1967 (Lessen).
- R T-U, May 24, 1960, October 19, 1963 (Bitgood). Ibid., December 23, 1959 (Brown). Ibid., April 24, 1964 (Smith).
- Donald W. Gilbert to Cornelis W. de Kiewiet, November 9, 1953, April 20, 1954. de Kiewiet Papers. RAR, XV (1954), no. 2, 7 ff. Higher Education, X (1954), 93. Faculty Minutes, March 17, 1955.
- Executive Committee Minutes, December 10, 1952. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to Charles B. Fahs, February 19, 1952. de Kiewiet Papers. de Kiewiet to Cleon A. Swayze, October 9, 1953. Ibid. A.J. May to de Kiewiet, December 8, 1953. Ibid. RAR, XV (1954), no. 3, 5. The Journal of General Education, XI (1958), 135-137.
- R T-U, December 14, 1951. Rochester Abendpost, May 14, 1956. Howard G. Harvey, "A French Language Laboratory...," French Review, XXIX (1955), 140-149. Harvey, "From Language Laboratory to Television Studio," Modern Language Journal, XXXVIII (1954), 282-289. RAR, XVII (1956) no. 4, 8-10.
- Faculty Minutes, December 18, 1960," April 5, May 24, 1962. Trustee Records, October 30, 1956, February 2, 1962. Executive Committee Minutes, July 13, November 21, 1960. RAR, XXII (1961), no. 3, 17. George L. Engel, "The Founding of the Center for Brain Research," September 22, 1965. Rhees Library Archives.
- Faculty Minutes, December 13, 1956, March 7, 1957, April 9, 1959, December 7, 1961, April 15, 1962. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to J. Edward Hoffmeister, September 16, October 10, 1955. de Kiewiet Papers. de Kiewiet to Bernard N. Schilling, December 14, 22, 1955. Ibid. Memo. re Committee on Educational Policy, June, 1956. Ibid. RAR, XVIII (1956), no. 1, 8. Executive Committee Minutes, October 6, 1955. Faculty Minutes, January 12, 1956.
- Executive Committee Minutes, January 27, 1954. R T-U, February 12, 19, 1954. New York: Herald-Tribune, February 14, 1954. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to J. Edward Hoffmeister, October 16, 1952. de Kiewiet Papers. Trustee Records. September 25, 1954; R D&C. February 21, 1967 (Beaven).
- R D&C, July 26, 1957.
- Faculty Minutes, February 5, 1959. Robert B. Hinman, "The Recent History of the Honors Program (1950-1965)," November, 1965. Rhees Library Archives. RAR, XXVIII (1966), no. 3, 4-6. "The U. of R., An evaluation by a team of colleagues representing the Middle States Association..." April 23, 1960, 7. Rhees Library Archives.
- Faculty Minutes, March 24, 1960. Executive Committee Minutes, May 11, 1960. RAR, XXII (1961), no. 4, 23.
- Faculty Minutes, November 1, 1956, June 6, 1957, November 6, 1958, December 3, 1959. Executive Committee Minutes, November 21, 1960, May 9, 1962.
- Executive Committee Minutes, August 11, 1953. Henry C. Mills to Cornelis W. de Kiewiet, May 5, 1954; de Kiewiet Papers.
- Annual Catalogue (Undergraduate Studies), 1961-1962, 82-84, 100. Stand-By, passim, 1955-1962. Faculty Minutes, January 12, 1956. Campus-Times, III, February 13, 1959.
- The Campus Crier, 1955-1958, passim. Howard R. Anderson, "Where We are and Where We are Going," probably 1957. Rhees Library Archives.
- Executive Committee Minutes, January 11, 1956. RAR, XVII (1956), no. 4, 6. Ibid., XXIV (1961), no. 1, 15-17.
- President's Report, 1956-1958. Campus-Times, VII, October 17, 1961. Executive Committee Minutes, September 13, 1961, April 4, 1962. RAR, XXV (1962), no. 2, 16. R D&C, June 2, 1968.
- Constitution: The U. of R. Alumni Federation (1952), Rhees Library Archives. RAR, XIV (1953), no. 3, 22. George I. McKelvey, "Six Year Report, 1950-1956, to the Board of Governors." Rhees Library Archives. Harmon S. Potter, "A Report to the Board of Governors of the Alumni Federation." February 5, 1966. Ibid. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to Alumni, February 14, 1955. de Kiewiet Papers. RAR, XVII (1955), no. 1, 22.
- Executive Committee Minutes, September 22, October 22, 1954.
- McKelvey, op. cit. Harmon S. Potter, "Five Year Report" (1961). Rhees Library Archives.
- Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to W. Albert Noyes, Jr., August 16, 1956. de Kiewiet Papers. Harmon S. Potter, "Then Came the Dawn," October 2, 1956. Rhees Library Archives.
- "Report of Director of Alumni Relations," in Trustee Records, October 11, 1957. Harmon S. Potter, "Five Year Report" (1961). Roger D. Lathan, 1954, to A.J. May, May 13, 1968. Rhees Library Archives.
- Executive Committee Minutes, October 19, 1960. RAR, XXII (1960), no. 2, 2-3.
- RAR, XVII (1955), no. 2, 15. Ibid., XXVI (1964), no. 4, 30; R D&C, June 1, 1968 (Dooley). RAR, XXX (1968), no. 2, 13 (Gibson).
- Executive Committee Minutes, January 28, 1953. RAR, XIV (1953), no. 3, 27. Ibid., no. 5, 4-13. Trustee Records, February 6, 1959.
- Executive Committee Minutes, August 11, October 8, 1953. Bernard N. Schilling, "The Public Orator and Gradum Honoris Causa," A.A.U.P. Bulletin, XLV (1959), 260-271. Schilling, "In Praise of Greatness: Gradum Honoris Causa," pamphlet, about 1964. Rhees Library Archives.
- Trustee Records, October 20, 1956, February 1, 1957, February 5, 1960. Executive Committee Minutes, December 19, 1956, September 14, 1960. At an extraordinary convocation of November 9, 1956, an honorary doctorate was awarded to Paul Henry, rector of the University of Rennes, French sister-city of Rochester.