Chapter 39: The Eastman School -- The Postwar Years
"We do not come here to examine you--we come to find out how you do it!" was the happy remark made by a member of the Middle States Association team which evaluated the Eastman School of Music, along with the other branches of the University, in 1959. And indeed, the "mighty Eastman School which no one in his right mind would touch to its detriment" scored high in the Association's final report; hailed as a pioneer in the evolution of education in music, the School was praised for its thirty-eight years of dynamic leadership and vision. Reservations in the main had to do only with the relationship of the Music School to the University as a whole, and recommendations were made for closer academic and administrative coordination and for a greater exploration of potential mutual cultural enrichment.
Despite this glowing tribute the Eastman School could not afford to rest on its laurels. At the time of its founding in 1921 it had been virtually unique, but intervening years had seen a great increase in the number of music schools and of music departments within universities (as, for example, at Michigan, Indiana, Northwestern, Illinois), many staffed by Eastman graduates. In a sense, it was a measure of the School's success that to a great degree it had created its own competition. A development committee appointed in 1952 stressed the necessity for broadening student opportunities, making the position of the faculty more secure both financially and professionally, and expanding projects in the field of research, creativity, publication, and recording. And President do Kiewiet in his comprehensive 1958 survey, "The Future of the University," saw as the overriding objective the need for the Eastman School to preserve its already established leadership. Only through constant reassessment and self-criticism, he believed, could it avoid the dangers of overconfidence. The best possible faculty must be recruited and supported, and the problem of a continuing administration, to take over the reins when Director Hanson should step down, had to be squarely faced. 1
In the spring of '47 an enriched and enlarged Festival of American Music culminated on Founders Day with a special anniversary celebration of the School's twenty-fifth year. Serge Koussevitsky, famed conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, saluted Hanson as "master builder" and expressed amazement at the brilliant array of musicians, orchestral players, teachers and interpretative artists the School had brought forth in so short a span. A less transient celebration of the milestone was the publication (1948) of a short history of the Eastman School by Charles Riker, teacher of the humanities at the School since 1930, assisted by Harold Gleason and Norman Nairn. The story of the founding, the history of the various departments, and details of the affiliation with community musical interests were fully covered; included in the appendix were complete bibliographies of faculty publications and recordings, lists of honors to faculty and alumni, and a directory of alumni in symphony orchestras or in concert, opera, or radio, or on the staff of colleges and universities. A foreword by President Valentine paid tribute to the School's quarter century service to music and music education.
Other anniversaries followed in quick succession. 1948 was the silver anniversary of the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, under the baton of a new conductor, Erich Leinsdorf (Eastman School students performed the choral passages of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and the Bruckner Te Deum at the anniversary concert), 1949 the twenty-fifth anniversary of Howard Hanson's appointment as the School's director, and 1950 the twenty-fifth birthday of the American Composers' Concerts (marked by a first performance of the Director's Cherubic Hymn). 1950, moreover, was the centennial of the University as a whole. The year-long celebration was brought to a climax, as we have seen, at an all-University convocation at the Eastman Theatre where Hanson's Centennial Ode was performed by the Eastman School Chorus and Orchestra, with Opera Workshop director Leonard Treash as narrator of John Rothwell Slater's stately stanzas. 2
The end of World War II brought the return of veterans, 210 of them, and resulted in a "rather staggering" increase in enrollment; in the fall of 1945, counting undergraduates, graduate and special students, a total of 636 matriculated, compared to the prewar optimum of 500. Also responsible for the overcrowding was the fact that unusually large freshman classes had been admitted the two preceding years, to compensate for upperclassmen leaving for military service. To Hanson each student over 600 was a burden; physical facilities, practice rooms especially, were taxed to the limit and many of the artist faculty saddled with more pupils than they could legitimately handle. The following year (1946-1947) enrollment climbed a little higher (to 638) and then through deliberate restriction was pared down to the desired 600 (596 in 1949-1950), only to rise again with the smaller influx of veterans of the Korean War in 1951-1952.
By 1949 the wartime preponderance of women students had ceased; men were again in the majority--316 as against 277 women, three more the next year, twenty more the following. At the end of the 'fifties, the student body was regularly close to sixty percent male, an evidence, Hanson felt, of Eastman's professional status. Over two-thirds, as a rule, came from outside New York State, an indication of a growing national and even international reputation. 3
The Music School, located with the exception of its women's dormitories in the heart of the city, had long felt the need of a real campus--of "blue sky and green grass"--of a place where the increasing number of students could relax and carry on their varied social and extracurricular activities. This dream was realized in part in 1951 when trustee and board of managers member Charles F. Hutchison turned his spacious East Avenue residence over to the School. About a mile from Gibbs Street and next door to Eastman House, the luxurious house and its surrounding gardens had atone time been considered as a possible official residence for the president of the University, but the immediate availability of Babcock House made the latter more practical. The City Council passed the necessary enabling ordinance , and in the fall Hutchison House began service as a student union and, temporarily, as a badly-needed men's dormitory. Plans to build a permanent dormitory for men on the property were cut short, however, when the Women's College was reunited with the College for Men on the River Campus and the Eastman School fell heir to buildings in the Prince Street area. Thereafter Hutchison House was used for recitals and musicales, and for activities of the. Preparatory Department. In 1959 it housed for a time the congregation of Rochester's Unitarian Church, pending the completion of a new sanctuary; its former home, the lovely Gothic-revival church of Richard Upjohn, had been razed to make way for progress (and Midtown Plaza). Upon the return of Hutchison House to the Eastman School two years later, it reverted to its former status; upon the retirement of Howard Hanson, it became the official residence of the new director. 4
Proper housing for men students became increasingly urgent. The Director welcomed, therefore, President de Kiewiet's suggestion at the time of the merger that the Eastman School take over Munro Hall for use as men's dormitory. Since it housed only 143, he feared it might prove small, but later this figure was stretched to 154 and room was found on the ground floor for the School's infirmary. The Middle States evaluators judged it one of the most spacious residences of the entire University. Built in 1939 as a dormitory for the College for Women, Munro Hall was still young and structurally sound, a far better building than could be had at inflated postwar prices. It was nearer the downtown campus than the planned dormitory on the Hutchison House property, and the fact that it was close to the Eastman women's dormitory complex would not be detrimental to the "spirit and solidarity" and "new sense of coherence" desired for the School by Director and President alike. After its acquisition, the question was raised of renaming the dormitory for Hanson, as more appropriate for a music school and for men students; action was tabled, however, out of loyalty to the first dean of the College for Women and in deference to the University's longstanding policy against naming buildings for living individuals. In point of fact, the dormitory became known simply as the Men's Residence Hall, and in 1968 Dear Munro's name was affixed to one of the student housing units at Hill Court on the River Campus.
In regard to the President's suggestion that the Eastman School take over Cutler Union, however, the Director had reservations. Because of the beauty of its architecture and surroundings, he wrote de Kiewiet, his first impulse was to welcome it as a magnificent addition to the School plant. On second and more sober thought, he feared that the School could not make efficient enough use of the building to justify the expense of its acquisition and upkeep; there was no real need for the auditorium, he felt, dining facilities could not be effectively used, and lounges and conference rooms would duplicate those at Hutchison House. To de Kiewiet Hanson's attitude was a "bit of a bombshell." By adding so substantially to its holdings, the Eastman School would make sound and prudent provision for future growth. It would be an irrevocable mistake, both President and Treasurer believed, for the School not to take over Cutler, one Hanson and his successors would bitterly regret; student spirit would improve immeasurably when men, women, and all student activities were housed together in the Prince Street area, and the School's competitive position with other schools of music would be greatly enhanced. Another possibility, not followed up, was to retain Hutchison House as a student union and make Cutler into an Eastman School graduate center. Sibley Music Library would have been housed in the great hall, and the rest of the building devoted to graduate work and seminars; undergraduate work, applied music, and practice rooms, would have remained downtown.
By the time the merger was well under way, Hanson's attitude had modified. Cutler, Munro, and a large part of the Prince Street campus, together with the Gibbs Street buildings, would give Eastman the most luxurious facilities ever possessed by any music school in all history. In June, 1954, Hanson reported to his faculty that he had recommended the purchase of Cutler Union. Cutler and Munro were accordingly turned over the School at their combined book value, $931,000, and that sum was transferred from the Eastman School reserve to the College of Arts and Science building fund. Included without cost was the land on which the buildings stood, and in addition six tennis courts and a field for sports activities. On the whole, it was a mutually advantageous transaction; architects estimated the current cost of reproducing the two buildings, exclusive of the value of the land, at about two and a half million. Admittedly, Cutler was large and contained some facilities not required by a music school, and James Gould Cutler's cherished Oxford Gothic tower would not have been deemed essential.
The great hall at Cutler proved in fact to be most useful. Seating 700 and with a well-equipped stage, it was larger than Kilbourn but more intimate than the vast Eastman Theatre auditorium; it served for musicales, concerts, chamber music symposia, Opera Workshop productions, and weekly meetings of the Collegium Musicum, of which more below, as well as for student dances. The remainder of the building provided recreation rooms, lounges, and headquarters for student and alumni activities. By the late 'fifties Cutler was also serving as a dormitory, accommodating twenty-four men, an overflow from Munro, in a barracks-like setup on the third floor. In 1961 the University took over a share of the maintenance costs and endeavored to work out ways to make Cutler more useful to the University as a whole. The Memorial Art Gallery proved a beneficiary, making use of the lounges and auditorium while the Gallery was closed for expansion and renovation, and remodeling (1966) the basement extensively for its Creative Arts Workshop. 5
To honor the Director's thirty-five years of leadership; and as a tribute to his "deep spirituality and his love for all peoples," in 1958 alumni, students, and friends raised funds for a Howard Hanson Interfaith Chapel. A large room on Cutler's second floor was remodeled; stained glass windows, lectern, Bible, and other furnishings were gifts of individual donors. Dedicated October 23, 1960, services for the three main faiths were held there each week, and the Chapel remained open at other times, providing Eastman students with a place of quiet retreat for prayer and meditation.
Shortly after its acquisition by the School, Cutler Union performed yeoman emergency service made necessary by a near tragedy--the collapse of part of the ceiling of the Eastman Theatre and the consequent forced closing of the Theatre for repairs in the winter of 1954-1955. Late in the afternoon of December ninth the Eastman School Chorus and Orchestra were rehearsing on the stage of the Theatre for a performance of the Bach Magnificat. Following an ominous crackling overhead, a 400-foot section of the ceiling "appeared to float downward," scattering debris and a cloud of dust over the empty seats in the orchestra below. Miraculously, only a few were in the body of the auditorium; had the accident occurred three hours later, seats would have been filled for a performance of the Philharmonic. Of the 186 panels in the ceiling, only four had crumbled, but those four could have wrought havoc in a full house. Theories as to the cause varied; one held that use of a high-pitched Bach trumpet caused a fatal vibration. A more probable explanation is that the ceiling had been weakened by installation of sheet metal work for an air conditioning unit some twenty-five years before.
Repairs were undertaken immediately under supervision of consultants from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Steel I-beams and rods were installed throughout the vast ceiling, with more than 3,000 steel hangers, each, capable of carrying a 2,000 lb. load, supporting the panels. When completed five months later, the ceiling was declared by the consultants and by the city's bureau of buildings as safe as human ingenuity could make it.
As part of the property of the School, cost of the repairs were met from Eastman School reserve funds. The final bill, to Hanson "staggering--though reasonable," was $58,879, less than half the sum originally feared, but still a blow to the School's budget, already stretched by maintenance expenses of newly acquired buildings. An untoward effect on the entire U. of R. budget was the doubling of premiums paid by the University for comprehensive liability insurance.
While the Theatre was closed, scheduled performances were held in other auditoriums throughout the city, many at Cutler. The Theatre was reopened and rededicated on May 18, 1955, with a performance of the Director's Merry Mount (first performed at the Metropolitan twenty-one years before), the composer conducting. A second performance was given the following evening; on both occasions, a capacity audience attested that public fears for the safety of the ceiling had been allayed. 6
Though now structurally sound, the condition of the Eastman Theatre as it approached forty years of age continued to be a source of concern. Especially, the deterioration of the adjacent building at the corner of Main and Swan Streets was an eyesore and a fire hazard (a fact pointed out by the Middle States team). George Eastman at the time of the School's founding had planned to acquire all property bounded by Main, Gibbs, Barret, and Swan Streets, but speculators drove up the price of that remaining small plot. The rumored one million was too much for Eastman's blood, and plans for the Theatre had to be altered accordingly. In 1961, however, the owners met the University's offer, and the property was sold for $225,000. The building was then razed, and a hitherto unrevealed and rather blank facade of the Theatre was disclosed. Plans for a small park-like area succumbed, temporarily at least, to the demands for faculty and staff parking.
Not only the Theatre but the physical plant of the School itself, as it passed its fortieth anniversary, showed signs of wear and tear. The year before his retirement the Director again stressed to the faculty the need for improved "housekeeping"--for refurbished lounges, washrooms, corridors--for more library space, a modernized cafeteria, new teaching laboratories, soundproofing. A new wing for the men's dormitory and additional gymnasium facilities were also desirable, as would be an in-between-sized auditorium with a seating capacity of twelve to fifteen hundred. The trustees in 1962 allocated $200,000 for renovation of dormitories, but much remained to be done. The recurrent possibility of abandoning downtown, of moving the School to the River Campus, was again discussed. But in view of the Director's opposition, and the previous conclusion of the Middle States evaluators that such a move would be inadvisable, the question became quiescent. 7
At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary celebration of his appointment, Hanson restated his objectives--to teach students to perform as musicians, to develop composers of serious American music, and to train teachers to help others to enjoy music--and the curriculum was broadened to make these ends more readily attainable.
The appointment of basso Leonard Treash two years earlier (1947) as teacher of voice and dramatic director of the opera department revitalized the teaching of opera. An Opera Workshop was set up, wherein students had the opportunity to perform under conditions similar to those they would later encounter in professional work. Programs of excerpts were presented frequently, and two to four complete operas, both traditional and contemporary, were staged each year, often under student directorship. Usually two performances of each opera were given, enabling a duplicate cast to perform the second night. Scenery, costuming, and orchestral accompaniment, all were at a professional level. Strong advocate of presenting opera in the English language, Treash, together with his wife, was responsible for witty and musically apt translation of a number of operas into English.
An outgrowth of the Opera Workshop was Opera Under the Stars, a series of three operas presented outdoors at Rochester's Highland Park each summer from 1953 on. As mentioned earlier, Philharmonic conductor Iturbi had first experimented with outdoor concerts at that location in 1942. Later (1947, 1948) Starlight Concerts were given at the Stadium on the River Campus; if rained out, orchestra and audience were transferred to the Palestra. The new venture was supported financially by the city, and later by the county government--the operas were presented to the public without charge, and audiences of five thousand or more were frequent. Members of the Eastman faculty and the Philharmonic and Civic Orchestras constituted the accompanying orchestra; among the soloists were students and, more frequently, alumni of the Opera Workshop. Two performances of each opera were scheduled; if rained out one night, the opera was postponed to the next. Not until the summer of 1968 were the fates so unkind that both originally scheduled performances had to be postponed. 8
Continuing the School's progressive approach to the teaching of theory, an Aural Comprehension Clinic was established (1952). Its purpose was twofold; first, research in the field of aural comprehension, and second, remedial work for students having difficulty in musical dictation and harmony. It had long been customary for such students to attend drill sessions and take extra work in theory under the guidance of graduate students; in 1951 a special six-week aural training course was substituted. Based on the experience so gained, the Clinic endeavored to provide students with the "fundamental orientation to the stimulus of sound" essential for musicianship. Taking as its field the investigation of hearing problems and the study of reactions to sound in relation to the teaching of music, the Clinic undertook research studies on, among others, the octave sense, the harmonic interval, and melodic memory. Aural training through use of recordings, audio-visual techniques, and teaching machines was investigated.
A second area of research, the field of music therapy--the effect of musical sound on both the normal and the abnormal mind--was of recurring interest, and the possibility of a joint program with the Division of Psychiatry at the Medical Center was explored, but as of 1969 had not been entered upon. Building on the work of the Aural Comprehension Clinic, the audio-visual facilities of the School were constantly expanded, with several classrooms specially equipped for instruction with overhead and sound movie projectors, filmstrip projectors, magnetic chalkboards, rythocycles, and multi-beat metronornes, and in 1959 an audio-visual methods course was introduced by the department of music education. In 1961 the trustees authorized a music-language laboratory. Individual and group listening rooms were installed on the second floor of Sibley Music Library, together with twenty-three soundproof booths equipped with tape recorders for use both for language and for musical dictation and audition, either as part of course work or upon the student's own initiative.
The recording department, housed on the two top floors of the Theatre Annex, also expanded its professional equipment. Its library of some 2,000 disks and 6,000 tapes contained a recording of virtually every musical performance ever given at the School--in effect, a history of the School in terms of sound. The recording department's studios were the technical center from which, after 1958, the nightly "Evening at Eastman" radio concerts were broadcast over an FM radio station. (In appreciation of the work of participating student orchestras and musical ensembles, the Veterans Broadcasting Company underwrote an annual student scholarship, as McCurdy & Company continued to do.) Hanson was acutely aware that one of music's greatest needs was for new listeners--an ever-expanding audience--so he welcomed the challenge of radio and television and cooperated with both educational and commercial broadcasters. A television series, "Music as a Language," was filmed (1955) and distributed by National Educational Television. The next year, and again in 1960 and 1961, television series of student and faculty concerts were commercially sponsored by local Rochester business firms.
In addition, the recording studios were the center of the School's long-term project of recording the music of American composers. Started in 1939 in cooperation with RCA Victor, on 78 rpm records, it was resumed after the war, first with Columbia (among recordings released was the Hanson-Slater Centennial Ode, performed by the Eastman Rochester Orchestra) and then with Mercury Records. In the ensuing dozen years over a hundred titles were released, representing the work of every major American composer. 9
Pioneering in the teaching of musical history and literature, the School established in 1955 a Collegium Musicum, designed to expand the student's musical and historical horizon through the presentation of rarely heard compositions--to enable students to experience in live performance music studied in class. In a sense, this was an outgrowth of the weekly "Milestones in the History of Music" radio broadcasts of 1938 through 1941, wherein, it will be recalled, music of the past was performed by the School's various orchestras and musical groups and accompanied by explanatory historical comment by members of the department of music literature. Utilizing the newly-acquired great hall at Cutler, meetings of the Collegium Musicum were held one evening a week, in an informal, congenial atmosphere (refreshments were served at a social hour following each performance). Programs were correlated with class lectures and were performed, as their nature indicated, by the appropriate choral or orchestral group, or by the Opera Workshop, or by graduate students or members of the artist faculty. As a rule, meetings were open only to students of the music history and literature classes (attendance averaged about 150), though occasionally the entire student body or the general public was invited. On occasion, too, the Collegium left Cutler for performances at the Eastman Theatre or in a downtown church. Now an integral part of the curriculum, the Collegium Musicum enormously vitalized teaching in fields hitherto somewhat "academic." Presentation of a complete new program every week is a Gargantuan task, as every repertory company knows; this was especially true for student performers unfamiliar with the older music. Consequently, in 1960 a special Collegium Musicum Ensemble was organized--a skilled group of twenty-five singers and ten instrumentalists under the direction of conductor David Fetler. Specializing in the performance of lesser-known masterpieces, it stood ready to serve the needs of the Collegium, though other groups and soloists continued to contribute.
The Director's third aim--to train teachers to help others enjoy music-was carried forward by the department of music education, which in 1957 set up special curricula for those proficient in applied music who wished both to perform and to teach, and with a secondary purpose of attracting performing musicians to the economically more stable teaching field. Other combination courses were offered in applied music and theory, and in applied music and the history of music, thus diversifying and enlarging the field of knowledge of the prospective professional performer.
On the whole, the curriculum evolved with the times. Of necessity somewhat regimented insofar as applied music and music education courses were concerned, it became otherwise increasingly flexible and fitted to the needs of individual students. The old two-year certificate program had died a natural death in the 'thirties: A Performer's Certificate, however, could be earned with, or following, the Bachelor's degree. Recommended for candidacy for the certificate by a special examining committee, the aspirant was required to present a public recital and appear as soloist with an orchestra. An Artist's Diploma was awarded to holders of the Performer's Certificate upon the completion of, ordinarily, two additional years work, an appearance as soloist with an orchestra, and the presentation of two public recitals.
The academic side of the curriculum was also broadened, in keeping with Hanson's deeply-held belief that the Eastman School should turn out not narrow specialists knowing only their "trade," but well-rounded men and women, aware not only of the whole of music but also of the humanities of which music is a part. A "great books" course was instituted (1957), and in 1960 a forward step was taken with the establishment of a Bachelor of Music program with a minor in the humanities; in addition to major work in applied music, forty to sixty hours could be elected in English literature, languages, history, philosophy and the fine arts. Head of the academic department, historian and pianist Charles Riker taught courses in many of the above fields. On his death in 1968, he was eulogized by Hanson as a "modern man of the Renaissance''--a civilizing and humanizing force for the School.
Those who wished wider training in the humanities or in science enrolled in the College as before, as candidates for a Bachelor of Arts with a major in music. It had been feared that integration of the Men's and Women's Colleges, and the consequent removal of women from neighboring Prince Street, would discourage such students, but, despite rather erratic bus transportation between the River Campus and Eastman School, their number continued to increase (to 133 in 1960). The traffic was two-way, Eastman students taking occasional advanced courses in the humanities at the College. 10
Graduate work received increasing emphasis. The optimum balance between graduates and undergraduates, Director Hanson firmly believed, was 150 to 450, or a ratio of one to three, but Eastman's growing professional reputation attracted constantly larger numbers of post-baccalaureate students (as well as a high percentage of undergraduate transfers from other institutions) which made that ratio difficult to maintain. By 1952-1953 the number of graduate students had climbed to 184, and five years later it surpassed 200.
The pressure on the facilities of the graduate division was further intensified in 1953 when a new degree, the Doctor of Musical Arts, was offered. Hanson, for many years chairman of the graduate commission of the National Association of Schools of Music, had become concerned that the needs of some graduate students were not adequately served by the program for the Ph.D. in music, awarded as it was largely for research in musicology and allied academic fields, or for musical creation. Excellence in performance, composition, and pedagogy and music education did not readily fit the mold; professionally-oriented candidates were forced into a procrustean Ph.D. bed. A professional degree was needed, one that would bear a relation to the Ph.D. similar to that the M.D. bears, say, to the Ph.D. in pathology. The proposed degree was not without critics who felt that the doctorate should be restricted to musical research--that the creation of "doctors of singing and playing" was irrelevant to scholarship. But the general consensus was that, with music courses ever more important in the liberal arts curriculum and with musicians increasingly members of college and university faculties subject to academic regulations regarding status, recognition of outstanding professional skill was essential.
A fitting title for the proposed degree presented a problem, since Doctor of Music had long before been pre-empted as the title of an honorary degree. The Director considered as a possibility, "Doctor of Musical Art," and then rejected it as redundant; "If music is not an art," he asked, "what is it?" Then President de Kiewiet felicitously added a vital "s"--Doctor of Musical Arts, meaning the arts of performance, pedagogy and composition--and the problem was neatly resolved. The State Board of Regents, approved the new degree late in 1952; by the following summer fourteen candidates were already at work; four years later forty-seven were in residence. Applicants were restricted to those satisfying rigorous standards in practical music; for all, ability to play or sing brilliantly became the distinguishing qualification. Specialization was possible in performance and pedagogy, in instrumental or vocal music, or in composition, and later in church music or in music education. First awarded to Will Gay Bottje at the University's 105th commencement in 1955, the degree provided academic recognition of high professional attainment in the practice of music. As of 1962 some fifty-two A.M.D. degrees had been conferred. 11
Pressures from the influx of graduate students demanded an administrative change, a lightening of the director's load. Harold Gleason, long-time teacher of organ at the School (and formerly private organist to the late George Eastman), was appointed chairman of the graduate division, responsible both to the director and to the dean of the Graduate School of the University. In 1955 composer Wayne Barlow succeeded Gleason as chairman. Then in 1957, in line with the University-wide reorganization of graduate work, the graduate division at the Eastman School was split in two and a Division of Graduate Research Studies and a Division of Graduate Professional Studies established. The Division of Research Studies continued under the direction of Associate Dean Barlow and supervised work for the M. A. and the Ph.D. The M.A. was offered as before in music education, musicology, or theory; the Ph.D. was given in the same fields and in composition and was awarded for outstanding creative work or for scholarly research. Work for the Ph.D., as in the other schools and colleges of the University, was placed under the jurisdiction of the dean of the University Council on Graduate Studies. The Division of Graduate Professional Studies, also headed by an associate dean, Eugene Selhorst (who came to Eastman in 1955 from the deanship of the Cincinnati College of Music), administered all work leading to the professional, degrees, Master of Music and Doctor of Musical Arts. A separate administrative committee assisted each associate dean, though the committees had a secretary in common and some members of the graduate faculty served on both.
Sacred music had long been part of the undergraduate curriculum, especially in the organ department and in the work of the choral ensembles. In 1959, as a normal outgrowth of the interest in graduate professional studies, and in cooperation with the U. of R.'s early theological seminary partner, now the Colgate-Rochester Divinity School, a department of church music was established, offering both the Master of Music and the Doctorate of Musical Arts., Undergraduates might earn a B.M. with major in organ and church music, but emphasis was primarily on graduate work. M. Alfred Bichsel, holding degrees in both sacred music and theology, carne from Valparaiso University to direct the program; he also held an appointment, concurrently, at the Divinity School. Graduate students in church music could elect a portion of their program at he Divinity School, especially in conjunction with that institution's developing department of religious education. The churches of Rochester cooperated as well, acting as laboratories wherein a student served as organist or choir director. Financing of the program was aided considerably by the award of NDEA fellowships, beginning in 1960; the following year eight fellows were in residence.
Also serving as a kind of laboratory for the department of church music, a Polyphonic Choir of some thirty-five voices, devoted to the performance of sacred choral music, made its debut at the dedication of the Howard Hanson Memorial Chapel in October, 1960: It became a frequent contributor to the College Musicum, either a capella or accompanied by the Collegium Ensemble. The debt, it should be. pointed out, was mutual, for the Collegium proved a valuable tool for both graduate divisions, that of Research Studies as well as of Professional. Its meetings were tied in closely with graduate work in music literature, both in the opportunity offered to hear music rarely otherwise performed, and in the discussion seminars which followed.
The Middle States accreditors, as we have seen, had high praise for the University's scientific graduate programs; about the quality of graduate work in the humanities they expressed reservations. The notable exception to such criticism was the Eastman School, where several departments were commended for distinguished work. The evaluators had special praise for the practice of recording student performances for future study, for the availability of a professional orchestra for the reading of student orchestral works and the accompaniment of graduate performers (an asset perhaps unique, they felt, to the Eastman School), and for the enrichment by the surrounding concert life of the School and of the urban community. 12
The expanding graduate curriculum demanded a corresponding expansion in library facilities. Sibley Music Library met the challenge, becoming one of the country's principal centers for musical research, surpassed in size only by the music divisions of the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library. At the time of Miss Duncan's retirement in 1947, the Library housed 55,000 volumes; fifteen years later, under Librarian Ruth Watanabe, the figure had more than doubled--120,000 volumes--and in addition included some 25,000 uncatalogued songs, sheet music, pamphlets, and commercial recordings, and a significant collection of microfilms, microcards, and rare manuscripts.
To meet greatly increased utilization, the collection was divided (1951) into two separate units, a circulating library for use in connection with course work, with stacks open to students, and a non-circulating research library for scholars. A large vault on the third floor provided safe storage for books and music of greatest value.
Already strong in the Renaissance and Baroque fields, emphasis on acquisitions shifted to 18th and 19th century materials which augmented the School's Classical and Romantic studies and to the American field, reflecting the influence of the School's commitment to American music and the interest aroused by the annual Festivals. Notable among purchases in the period immediately following the war were the libraries of chamber and string music of Eastman teachers violinist Jacques Gordon and violist Samuel Belov. To celebrate the completion of his first quarter century as director, Hanson deposited in the library the manuscript scores of many of his compositions, and continued to do so. Later in the 'fifties the library of operatic scores and of contemporary music was greatly enlarged, and the acquisition of a large collection of Scandinavian music opened (1961) a new field for research. Outstanding among the Library's pioneering educational activities was a series of summer workshops--seminars and open forum discussion groups--for professional music librarians, noted in another context.
Friends of the School, in addition to gifts to the Library of rare books, manuscript scores, and records, presented instruments, ancient and modern, to the School's collection. Of especial interest was a Stradivarius violin known as the May-Jacquet, dating from 1714, the finest period in the career of the great Cremona maker. Additional gifts included portraits of the School's director, faculty members, and other distinguished musicians.
The Middle States evaluators commended the Sibley Music Library, noting that its collection of American music was one of the largest in the country, and judging its collection of research materials more than adequate for the needs of graduate students and ample for the most demanding of visiting scholars. More space was obviously needed, but would be provided by construction then, and alas still (1969), in the planning stage. 13
The Eastman School Summer Session, long vigorous, took on added importance under Allen I. McHose, who assumed the directorship in 1954. By 1961 registration had passed the thousand mark, somewhat less than half being in the Preparatory Department, and with graduate students outnumbering undergraduates by more than two to one. A primary aim was to serve the needs of the non-degree seeking professional musician through refresher and self-improvement courses. Consequently, instruction in applied music in all instruments was offered, and a series of institutes for music educators in band, orchestra, and string ensemble were set up.
In 1957 the institutes were implemented by a series of one-week workshops--for string ensemble, wind ensemble, piano teaching, church music, and music library. The following year a week-long course in music criticism and in oratorio repertory was added; the next, one in theory and composition (under Director McHose), a Musician's Workshop for Church and Synagogue, and an Arranger's Laboratory were set up. A one-day Trombone Workshop, a Saxophone Workshop, and a six-week Piano Institute were also added. So popular were the workshops, indeed, that they carried within them the seed of their own demise. During its four seasons, for example, more than a hundred librarians participated in the Music Library Workshop--over half the total membership of the Music Library Association and representing practically every music library in the United States. By the end of the 1960 session the saturation point was reached, and a number of the workshops were temporarily discontinued.
The last week of each session a one-day Composers Symposium was held, during which works written by summer session students were performed. The Eastman Summer Orchestra, of about thirty players drawn from the Rochester Philharmonic and Eastman-Rochester Orchestras, gave concerts throughout the season, and additional concerts were given by chamber music groups and by' faculty and student soloists. In the summer of 1960, for example, a total of forty concerts were held in Kilbourn Hall, together with five others at Strong Auditorium for benefit of. River Campus Summer Session students, and six performances of Opera Under the Stars. Such a wealth of music caused a local newsman to boast that Rochester in summer was close to "festival status." As before, the Summer Session attracted a distinguished visiting faculty, a source not only of fresh ideas for the School, but of permanent additions to staff.
In the nature of pioneering, the Summer Session in 1956 introduced an accelerated program for talented high school students, whereby a Bachelor of Music degree might be earned in three full academic years and two summer sessions, the first following the student's junior year, the second after his graduation from high school. At the time of admission into the regular session, the freshman core curriculum would be out of the way, and concentration in a major field could be undertaken. Open only to youths of superior musicianship and good scholastic record, it was felt that exposure to the artist faculty at an early age when good techniques are readily acquired, together with the mutual stimulation of gifted students working together, would be all to the good. Not only would the young student be enabled to enter upon his career as performer or teacher earlier, but the advanced training and early acquaintance with collegiate objectives would stand him in good stead should his schooling be interrupted by military service. 14
Activity of the various musical ensembles, avocation as well as vocation to many at Eastman, continued apace. After the death of Jacques Gordon and consequent dissolution of the Gordon String Quartette in 1948, the Kilbourn Quartette, composed of members of the string faculty, was revived and renamed the Eastman Quartette in honor - of the School's founder. In the spring of 1960 it undertook a six-week concert tour of the Mediterranean and Middle East under the auspices of the State Department and President Eisenhower's Cultural Exchange Program, the only teaching ensemble so honored. The year before, on a similar cultural mission at home, the Eastman Quartette toured the southern United States.
Student work in chamber music, directed by violinist John Celantano (a member of the Eastman Quartette from 1954 on), was greatly expanded, with enough small ensembles coordinated with the work of the various teaching departments to permit participation by all students. Annual chamber music festivals were held, the first in 1946, during which the students' own compositions were performed by student trios, quartettes, or octettes should the score demand, or by the Eastman String Quartette. To bridge the gap between these small ensembles and the larger orchestras and bands, a chamber symphony orchestra, the Baroque Symphonia, was formed. 15
To fill a similar need for reeds, brasses, and percussion instruments, an Eastman Wind Ensemble of some fifty players was organized (1952). Triggered by a concert of original music for wind instruments presented in 1951, it was the brainchild of conductor Frederick Fennell, the result of his recognition of the need to provide both outlet and, stimulus for composition to band leaders genuinely interested in the creation of contemporary music, works for which the average band structure and repertory were too rigid. Devoted primarily to the study and performance of original scores, the Wind Ensemble also participated extensively in the School's recording program, producing varied fare ranging from the 16th century Baroque to a complete anthology of the marches of John Philip Sousa.
Outstanding was an historical series recording ceremonial, social, and field music of the American army--fife and drum, bugle, cymbal, and field trumpet--from the Revolutionary War to the present day. To launch the City of Rochester's commemoration of the Civil War Centennial in 1960, the Wind Ensemble presented a number of concerts of music of the Civil War, both of the Union and of the Confederacy. And as part of the Eastman School's fortieth anniversary celebration in 1962, the Wind Ensemble performed at Carnegie Hall; Times and Herald-Tribune alike praised the group's virtuoso approach and its admirable unity, balance, and responsiveness.
The Wind Ensemble in no way supplanted or impaired the work of the Symphony Band (of which there were two in the immediate postwar years), which continued to give concerts, notably a series beamed to the public schools of New York State broadcast over the Rural Radio Network. A curious and rather specialized offshoot was the short-lived Marimba Masters, a group of six advanced percussionists and one string bass, formed as a result of a laboratory project in 1954, which shortly undertook professional engagements and produced a commercially successful record album. 16
Directly following the war, to accommodate the influx of returning veterans, a third symphony orchestra--the Kilbourn Hall, later known as the Little Symphony, and then the Chamber--became necessary. The Senior Symphony continued most in the public eye, participating for a number of years in National Broadcasting Company broadcasts, the "Orchestras of the Nation" series (the only student orchestra to be included), and at one time actually substituting for a scheduled performance of the NBC Symphony. In the winter of 1952-1953 it undertook a sponsored thirteen-week nationally broadcast series; jubilantly the Director pointed out that its selection had in actuality been in com petition with the nation's top professional orchestras, since a commercial contract, required that performers be paid at union rates. The Junior Symphony gave public concerts also; of especial interest was their performance with the Eastman School Choir in 1950 of the Bach St. John Passion. 17
Reflecting the School's emphasis on creativity, American Composers Concerts were held each year, though the fall symposium which had been allotted to composers unaffiliated with the Eastman School was dropped, and emphasis placed on a spring symposium devoted to student work. In a typical year (1951), thirty-one orchestral works by twenty-nine students were presented, a $100 prize given by the Director himself awarded (in the 'sixties a second annual prize was donated by alumnus Louis Lane, 1947), and some of the outstanding compositions selected for performance at the Festival of American Music.
The annual week-long Festival continued to crown the School year, with nightly concerts by both student and professional orchestras and performances of chamber music, ballet, and opera. The first postwar Festival brought. the total of new works performed to a thousand and included a symposium of music in the jazz idiom (a genre not to attain curriculum status for another two decades). The 1953 Festival marked the presentation of a new series of three prizes given each year for the best student work of a quiet or tranquil nature. Established by Harvard trustee Edward B. Benjamin, the awards were noteworthy both as an interesting attempt to encourage the creation of music of specific qualities and as a tribute to the Festivals from outside the Eastman School circle. By the decade of the 'sixties, the Festivals had become a familiar and important part of the City's musical life and that of the country as a whole, encouraging an atmosphere of public receptivity to new music unknown a generation earlier and strengthening immeasurably the position of American composers at home and abroad.
The final convocation of each Festival, held in Kilbourn, was designated "Founder's Day" and was the occasion for reuning alumni and for honors to faculty and graduating seniors. Though no new Beethoven was unearthed (George Eastman reputedly was once rebuked because the School had failed to uncover a composer of such stature!), the Festival's record was distinguished, including initial performances of works by Bernard Rogers, Herbert Inch, Burrill Phillips, Peter Mennin, and many others; as of 1962, works by some 730 composers had been performed, either at the Composers Concerts or at the Festivals. In some years (1953) large portions of the Festival were commercially recorded, and every year all performances were taped, adding to and enriching , the body of recorded material available for study. 18
Members of the faculty and some of the more advanced students served, as before, as members of the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, which celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 1947-1948 with the appointment of Erich Leinsdorf, its third permanent conductor. Coming, after war service, from the Cleveland Symphony, and a former Wagnerian conductor at the Metropolitan Opera, he was popular with students (and contributed an editorial to their struggling newspaper, A Tempo); he left Rochester in 1956 to return to his first love, opera, and later became conductor of the Boston Symphony. His successor, Theodore Bloomfield, a product of the Eastman School's friendly rival, the Oberlin Conservatory, came to Rochester in 1958 from the Portland (Oregon) Symphony Orchestra. With the departure of Guy Frazer Harrison for the Oklahoma Symphony in 1951, Paul White, for many years teacher of Ensemble (the 1954 student yearbook, The Score, praised his never-failing understanding of the problems of orchestral players), assumed the directorship of the Civic Orchestra. 19
To offer wider opportunity and orchestral experience to the School's topflight instrumentalists, a new orchestra, the Eastman Philharmonia, was organized in the winter of 1958-1959 and soon developed into a major performing body of some eighty-five musicians, both undergraduate and graduate, under the direction of Howard Hanson and Paul White. In its first two seasons, in addition to concerts at the School and at Strong Auditorium, it participated extensively in the "Evening at Eastman" radio programs and traveled afield to give concerts in Buffalo and Atlantic City. The following year, so quickly had its reputation spread, it was one of the two orchestras in the United States--and the only student orchestra--invited by the Pan-American Union in Washington to participate in its second Inter-American Festival of American Music. The Philharmonia's program, repeated later that spring at the School's own Festival, consisted of the premieres of works by four American composers, with alumnus William Warfield as soloist.
Greater recognition followed--an invitation from the State Department to participate in the President's Special International Program for Cultural Presentations, as had the Eastman Quartette two years before. This would involve a three-month tour of Europe and the Middle East during the regular winter concert season. So long an absence from classes--a third of the academic year--was viewed with misgiving, but schedules were rearranged to minimize loss of credit. With the understanding that the tour would not extend beyond three months and that the strength of the student musicians would not be overtaxed by more than five concerts a week (a rugged schedule even for professionals), the faculty voted approval.
The logistics of the tour, carried out with the advice and direction of the International Exchange Service of the American National Theatre and Academy (ANTA), were staggering. Passports, visas, medical examinations, "shots," draft deferments, parental permissions, security checks, insurance-the list was endless. Three planes were chartered, two for the eighty-seven members of the orchestra and accompanying personnel--ninety-five in all--and one for the more than 17,000 lbs. cargo ($250,000 worth of musical instruments were packed in seventy trunks).
Travel in Poland was to be by bus, and in Russia by rail. On November 24, 1961, after nearly six months of preparation, the ninety-three-day "musical safari" was at last in flight. From the first concert in Lisbon, to the forty-ninth in Leningrad, the group met with warm reception, appreciative audiences, (full houses demanding encore after encore), and highly favorable reviews. In all, thirty-four cities were visited, in sixteen countries; approximately 30,000 miles were flown by air, 2,000 covered by rail, and 600 by bus.
Conducting chores were shared by Director Hanson and Frederick Fennell. The carefully planned repertory was largely American, save for the national anthems of the countries visited; that of Syria inadvertently had not been included. The orchestration was scored in haste by Hanson minutes before its performance, and so successfully that it was later officially adopted by the Syrian government. The "showstopper," the piece most enthusiastically received everywhere, in Moscow especially, was John Philip Sousa's rousing march, "The Stars and Stripes Forever."
To Hanson, the tour was an exciting triumph for the theory and practice of music in the United States, and for the American system of musical education he had done so much to perfect. But he also found it a "grueling experience,'' filled with challenges to be overcome: a power failure in Madrid--the orchestra continued the performance of Stravinsky's "Firebird" in the dark: a bomb explosion outside the auditorium in Aleppo, Syria--the young musicians played on uninterruptedly: tangled bus schedules and misplaced luggage in Poland--though the weary travelers arrived minutes before curtain time, they performed with aplomb in sweaters and slacks. Eastman students, speaking the universal language of music, were true ambassadors of good will, representing the best in American culture; they called themselves "drip-dry diplomats." But it was not all one way--benefits were reciprocal. The young Americans' knowledge of the world, of contemporary mores and manners as well as music, was broadened and enriched. Those with recent European antecedents explored their roots, sought out relatives and native towns. Conservatories of music were visited and informal "bull sessions" held with serious, highly-motivated European students eager to learn of American life and music. Wherever possible, local concerts were attended, and in Russia the opera and ballet as well. In all, the tour was an education in itself--a highly successful example of the people-to-people communication the cultural exchange program was designed to foster.
It maybe that the Russian people were disposed in advance to extend a warm welcome to Eastman students, for the year before a short television film, produced by the United States Information Agency, was shown throughout Russia and later released for TV showing in other foreign countries. Entitled "Rehearsal for Tomorrow," the twenty-nine minute documentary was probably the first such film devoted exclusively to a school of music; it showed Eastman students in and out of classes and included performances by the School's string quartette, symphony and choir.
In the autumn following its triumphant tour abroad, the by now well- seasoned Philharmonia made its debut in Carnegie Hall, as if to show its own countrymen what the shouting was all about. Appropriately, the, program consisted in its entirety of works by Eastman-trained composers, each of which had won the Pulitzer Prize. 20
The generally laudatory Middle States Association evaluation of the Eastman School contained one serious reservation; the connection of the School to the University was, it seemed to the examiners, "remarkably tenuous"--in fact, ambiguous. Was the director responsible to the board of trustees, or to the School's tightly knit, self-perpetuating board of managers? Was the board of managers independent of or subsidiary to the board of trustees? If the School was to be an integral part of the University, presidential authority must be strengthened. de Kiewiet had reached this same conclusion early in his tenure. The president, he found, was according to George Eastman's deed of gift technically chairman of the board of managers, but over the years that function had been allowed to lapse, and meetings of the board were held infrequently. These de Kiewiet resolved to step up to a monthly or bimonthly basis, with the president having authority for the agenda.
Always small, vacancies on the board occurring in the late 'thirties had not been filled and membership dwindled to five, the president and the director included. In 1960 the executive committee of the board of trustees authorized an increase to fifteen, to include the acting president, the chairmen of the board of trustees and of the executive committee, and, to strengthen community relations, the incumbent president of the, Civic Music Association, ex officio. Upon the inauguration of a new director, Hanson retained his place, as did Hazlett when he became provost, thus bringing the membership to thirteen. A suggestion that terms be for three years and be staggered was not followed up.
President de Kiewiet also questioned the adequacy of the administrative structure within the School itself. Of necessity in the early years direction had been highly centralized, if only to comply with George Eastman's demand for action and results. But Hanson agreed that it was no longer possible, or even desirable, to have the director personally responsible for all decisions and recommended to de Kiewiet the creation of the post of assistant director. Especially, as Hanson's tenure passed the quarter-century mark, the question of continuity of leadership could no longer be ignored. In 1953 authority was delegated; Charles Riker was placed in charge of the Preparatory Department, and, as we have seen, Allen I. McHose of the Summer Session and Harold Gleason of Graduate Studies--in all these cases the new appointees continued to teach. Later Riker's duties were further broadened to cover the position of executive secretary of the School. To lighten the director's still considerable load, the office of administrative assistant to the director was established and filled by an alumnus, Edward H. Easley, 1943, who also served as director of admissions. Not until Hanson's retirement became imminent was an associate director appointed (1962), McHose filling that new post in title as he had long done in fact. 21
Generously endowed by its founder, the Eastman School until well into the 'fifties operated in the black, in some years the only division of the University to do so. Later years brought deficits, covered not from general University funds but from accumulated Eastman School reserves. Reputedly wealthy, the School attracted few additions to its endowment; the Ford Foundation gift in 1956 and 1957 of $427,993 (the Music School's share of the "accomplishment grants" for the raising of teacher salaries) and the School's portion ($200,000) of the Wilson family gift in 1961 were the outstanding exceptions. Because of commitment to a limited enrollment, income from tuition remained virtually frozen, though University-wide increases in 1960-1961 and 1962-1963 provided temporary relief. Also helpful was stepped-up alumni giving, which increased over fourfold between 1956 and 1962.
Through its annual appropriation for the support of the Civic Music Association and its more modest yearly contribution to the Hochstein School, the Eastman School continued to show its concern for the musical interests of the Rochester community. But Hanson sometimes feared that such subsidies gave the public the'' erroneous impression that the School was wealthy beyond need. More soberly, he was concerned about the shrinking dollars available for music education purposes--for adequate faculty salaries, for scholarships, for the graduate program--and about the need to keep the School competitive with new schools of music affiliated with large state universities and hence relatively free from financial pressure. As George Eastman's heir the University perhaps had a moral obligation to serve in loco parentis to the city's musical organizations, but the Director believed strongly that the first obligation was to the school Eastman had founded. After the death in 1953 of the School's financial secretary, Arthur M. See, who had also acted as executive director of the Civic Music Association, administrative affairs of the two organizations were firmly separated, but reciprocal services continued undiminished. On de Kiewiet's recommendation, a continuing committee was appointed to study mutual problems, and with the enlargement of the board of managers in 1961, noted above, the president of the CMA became an ex officio member of the directing body of the Eastman School. 22
Of the seventeen Rochester National Scholarships established in 1956, four were awarded annually at Eastman, and the School continued to devote a larger proportion of its general income to scholastic aid than did any other branch of the University--an average of nearly one fourth of annual tuition receipts, compared to about one seventh on the River Campus. Alumni through their annual giving established ten scholarships and maintained a revolving loan fund for students in financial difficulty. A number of endowed scholarship funds were established by bequest (Edith H. Babcock, David M. Falk, Henry Smith, Jr.) and in memory of beloved former teachers, students, and others (Max Landow, Marion Weed, Josephine White, Roger Minor, and Rudolph Speth), and Eastman students were eligible for scholarships open to the students of the University at large. Less financial assistance was available, to graduate students than in the other divisions, approximately one-half paying their own way entirely (compared to about one-tenth in the University as a whole), although the National Defense Education Act fellowships gave a tremendous boost to graduate work, as we have seen, and New York state fellowships were available to those planning a teaching career. 23
The faculty, as a corporate body, continued to meet intermittently, once or at the most twice a year, and attendance at faculty meetings was spotty. President de Kiewiet, in particular, decried the resulting lack of discussion and debate, practices he felt conducive to intellectual vitality.
In continuation of the old conservatory of music tradition, the faculty operated as an unstructured affiliation of artist-teachers; and enjoyed neither academic rank nor official tenure. There did exist an unwritten policy of "presumptive tenure"--namely, that after seven years on the faculty a member would not be removed without just cause. And it was true that faculty turnover was amazingly small. As of 1960 twenty-eight members had served twenty years or more. The Middle States visitors the year before found that sixty, or over three-fifths the total faculty, had been on the staff at least ten years, and another fifth more than five. The problem of academic rank was made knotty by those members who taught largely in the Preparatory Department and by the limited teaching contracts of those who were members of the Philharmonic Orchestra. The Middle States team suggested that this be solved by making tenure and rank independent of each other.
A faculty committee, set up to study the problem and present their solution to the University's board of trustees, recommended that full time collegiate faculty be appointed to the ranks of professor, associate, and assistant professor, with tenure as in the other schools of the University for associate and full professors. To give equal protection to teachers in the Preparatory Department, a new tenured rank with the title of senior instructor should be granted to those with ten years of service or more. The trustees approved the recommendations in June of 1960; the next year the executive committee at one fell swoop created thirty-one full professors, fourteen associate professors, seventeen senior instructors, and, in tribute to those who had retired, ten professors and three senior instructors emeriti!
During the late 'fifties efforts were made to increase faculty salaries by five percent annually. By 1959-1960 the minimum had advanced to $4,500, the median to $8,500, and Middle States examiners declared that, in general, salary scales were comparable to those prevailing in the other schools of the University. That this did not continue to be the case is attested by a resolution of the Rochester chapter of the American Association of University Professors in 1968 decrying the "C" salary status of the Eastman School in contrast to the top "A" grade of other portions of the University. Teaching loads remained heavier than those on the River Campus, ranging up to fifteen hours weekly, and in the case of applied music, where instruction was often on a one-to-one basis, to twenty or twenty-five. 24
Though faculty turnover was indeed low, advancing years brought inevitable attrition among the older generation. As replacements and to staff expanded programs, teachers were often recruited from Eastman alumni, many of whom served on the faculties of music schools across the country. Among the new artist faculty coming to the School in the late 'forties and in the 'fifties were Rochester-trained violinist John P. Celantano, 1937, clarinetists William F. Osseck and D. Stanley Hasty, both of the class of 1941, violinist Francis Tursi and flautist John T. Thomas, 1947, K. David Van Hoesen, 1950, horn, Daniel J. Patrylak, 1954, trumpet, and David Fetler, A.D.M., 1956, ensemble. Celantano and Tursi were both members of the Eastman Quartette, and Celantano of the Modern Art String Quartette, of which he was the founder.
Among Eastman-trained musicologists and educators added to the faculty were Ruth Watanabe, Ph.D., 1952, librarian and musicologist; Louis Mennini, 1941, teacher of composition; Lyndol Mitchell, M.M.,1951, and A.M.D.,1961, Robert V. Sutton, Ph.D., 1955, and David F. Geppert, Ph.D., 1958, in theory; Eugene Selhorst, Ph.D., 1950, and Verne Thompson., Ph. D. ,1955, in music literature, who served respectively as associate dean for graduate studies and as secretary for the graduate committee; and W. Everett Gates Jr., 1939, in music education, who published orchestrations for treble clef, instruments and string orchestra. Mennini and Mitchell gained note as composers, the first for his Sonatina for Cello and Piano and for his Overture Breve, the second for Kentucky Mountain Portraits and a String Quartette in E Minor. Both men were recipients of a number of commissions by foundations and symphony orchestras, and Mitchell of one from a less exalted source, the U. of R. Glee Club (for -which he composed St. Mark's Easter Gospel in 1960). Dr. Watanabe, in addition to distinguished program notes for the Rochester Philharmonic concerts, contributed articles to the University's Library Bulletin, authored books on musical research, and served as editor for music publications of the University of Rochester's Microprint Press, Coming to Rochester, from abroad was the Swiss violinist Andre di Ribaupierre, under whose direction the Eastman Quartette was revived. Upon his untimely death in 1955, he was succeeded by Joseph Knitzer, in demand as soloist, lecturer, and musical advisor--in 1961 he served as adjucator at the Naumberg International String Contest. George Miquelle, violoncellist from France, also a member of the Eastman Quartette, presided at various chamber music festivals. Swiss-trained Orazio Frugoni, pianist, performed in concert halls here and abroad--a world tour in 1962 included recitals before American servicemen in Vietnam and performances with symphony orchestras in Japan, Hong Kong, Israel, and his native Italy. David Craighead directed the organ department from 1955 on and was instrumental in setting up the new department of church music--noted in recital, he was one of four Americans to play at the International Congress of Organists in London in 1957. M. Alfred Bischell, already noted, who headed the department of church music, was a prolific composer of music for organ.
Other instrumentalists joining the faculty in the late 'fifties included horn players Verne Reynolds, composer of music for brass choir, and Milan Yanich, author of a number of articles on his specialty, and violoncellist Ronald Leonard, who occupied first desk at the Philharmonic and appeared extensively on the concert stage. Basso Leonard Treash, mentioned above, came from Baldwin-Wallace in 1947 as dramatic. director of the opera department, and the voice faculty was augmented by baritone Julius Huehn, soprano Josephine Antoine, and mezzo-soprano Anna Kaskas, all of whom had been members of the famed Metropolitan Opera Quartette. Madame Kaskas also served as judge at Metropolitan Opera auditions and for the Ford Foundation. Appointed in 1947 to teach theory was Oberlin-trained Thomas Canning, composer and first member of the Eastman School faculty to fill (1961-1962) the R. T. French Company exchange professorship at the University of Hull in England.
To fill the need of returning veterans for sympathetic guidance, and to cope with social and personal problems of increased numbers, student affairs were put under the charge of a dean of students, who acted as advisor to both men and women, supervised extracurricular activities, oversaw the dormitories, and assisted the director on curricular problems. The new post was briefly filled by Margaret Grant, who came (1945) to the Eastman School from Tanglewood and departed within a year for a position with UNESCO. Her assistant, Flora Burton, who also taught psychology, stepped into the breach and in 1948 was appointed dean of students, an office she filled with distinction for more than two decades. The student yearbook of 1953 hailed her as a "willing friend" concerned with the welfare of the entire student body and possessed of the inestimable gift of "finding the right answer. "
To assist the dean, a women's residence hall council was set up, and after the acquisition of Munro Hall, a similar men's council. Elected by students, each council comprised social and judicial, and in the case of the men, athletic committees. The success of the judicial committees is indicated in that the number dismissed for "unsatisfactory school citizenship" declined after 1947 to a point where it ceased to be a concern, of the faculty, in its infrequent meetings at any rate. Encouraged by the athletic committee, the intramural athletic program was strengthened, especially in basketball and volleyball; in 1948 Harold G. Hawn, 1949, became the first Eastman student to be a full-fledged member of the U. of R. varsity basketball team. Of interest to both men and women, a Modern Dance Club came into being, and in the 'fifties student-sponsored informal jazz concerts were held in Kilbourn Hall. 25
A spectacular "disciplinary" problem, potentially too serious to be handled by student committees, came to the fore in the fall of 1960 when the School's elevator operator, visibly shaken, reported that two young women had offered him $5,000 if he would help them plant 300 lbs. of dynamite in strategic locations throughout the School and the Theatre. The elder of the two girls, a member of the Rochester Philharmonic and an Eastman alumna and former graduate student, he identified from her picture in the yearbook. Rochester police were called in; their first reaction was, not surprisingly, to dismiss the affair as a student prank or hoax. However, the younger girl, a member of the Junior class, evidently could not live with her heavily burdened conscience or with the danger involved--she reported to the dean that there did indeed exist 300 lbs. of dynamite stored in her friend's Meigs Street apartment, with which it had been their intent to blow up, first, the dormitories (in protest at the requirement that undergraduates reside there rather than in apartments about town), but on second thought the School itself. The dynamite, found in the apartment as indicated, together with detonator caps and two pistols, had been stolen early the previous summer from a construction project in New Hampshire and had toured the cities of the Eastern seaboard stowed in the hot trunk of the girls' car.
The young women were given psychiatric examinations (which revealed no abnormality!) and jailed awaiting trial. Because the stolen dynamite had crossed state lines, the FBI was called in. Tried on four charges (conspiracy to commit crime, endangering human life, and illegal possession of explosives and of unregistered guns), they were given suspended one-year sentences and ordered to leave Rochester never to return.
Director Hanson was understandably shocked at the so-called bomb plot and reassured the faculty that there was no indication whatsoever that any member of faculty or staff had been involved in the conspiracy in any way. To the press he explained that the Eastman School on the whole experienced far less "unruliness" than other educational institutions because "music students know all along what they wish to accomplish" and are "more likely to buckle down than the ordinary college student." 26
Despite the tendency to "buckle down," interest in extra-curricular activities, which had sagged during the war years, underwent a modest revival. In 1947 the Students Association adopted a new constitution and shortly thereafter elected a representative to serve with his counterparts in the other divisions of the University on the Inter-Campus. Council. In addition to the usual picnics, hayrides and dances (traditional boat trips to Coburg became a thing of the past after 1950, when the ferries crossing Lake Ontario were discontinued), the Students Association arranged coffee hours, lectures and convocations, and sponsored a New York state regional meeting of the National Students Association. In the spring of 1948 it played host to the American Music Students' Symposium; students from seven major music schools met in Rochester for concerts, forums , and a banquet and dance, all student managed. In 1953 a similar annual symposium, that of the International Federation of Music Schools, was likewise student run.
The international bent of the young musicians was reflected in foreign welfare activities of the Students Association--collecting funds for refugees (1947-1948), sharing in the University World Service drives, and, especially close to student hearts, contributing (1956) $1,000 of its surplus to a fund to aid Hungarian students (an indication of the surprising financial health of the Association!) In addition, a bushel basket placed in the School's main corridor garnered nearly $200 more; Hungarian relief activities continued a second year. Closer to home were repeated drives for the Red Cross blood bank and an annual Christmas toy round-up for needy children.
The upsurge in the number of men students and the acquisition of Hutchison House, and later Cutler, led to a fuller social program. Hallowe'en parties were followed by "Snow-Balls" or "Sleigh-bell Balls," by a Valentine "Cupid's Capers," by Junior Proms with crowning of a May queen, and by Senior formals and banquets. Hayrides in December, Christmas carol sings, ski trips to Old Forge in the Adirondacks, and spring picnics in Ellison Park rounded out the social calendar. Dramatic. activities included for a time an annual Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera, and in 1956 the Christmas party was enlivened by a brave student-authored production, "Parsleyfool.'' In addition, the Students Association was responsible for a series of social events for greenlings during Orientation week. 27
Foremost among responsibilities of the Students Association was publication of the student yearbook, The Score, handsome in format and after 1953 considerably enlarged. Largely photographs, it carried each year a portrait of the School's founder and of the faculty member to- whom it was dedicated. Several times Director Hanson was selected; in 1952 the honor was accorded to board of managers member Hutchison, in grateful appreciation for Hutchison House. Students Association efforts to establish a newspaper did not achieve like success. Undertone, a mimeographed four to eight page biweekly, flourished for a few issues in 1947 and then expired, to be followed by a fatter multigraphed A Tempo which survived into the fall of the following year. The first advocated a more active social program; the second castigated students for the general apathy toward extracurricular activities.
In the mid-'fifties a new attempt was made, The Sower, published twice monthly for a brief half year. In addition to reporting news and serving as a vehicle for announcements, it aimed "to edify and please readers through the presentation of articles of cultural interest"--commentaries on the symphonies of Vaughn Williams and Carl Neilson, on the poetry of Dylan Thomas, on Hanson's belief in world unity through music--and was promptly damned by some for "over-intellectualism."
Last and least, a Miniature Score appeared in 1961; only one issue has been located. Its declared purpose to provide "a student meeting ground," it churlishly berated Eastman students as cliquish and accused the faculty of factionalism and "instrumental snobbery." 28
Reflecting the lowered proportion of women students, Delta Omicron sorority became inactive in 1948, but its alumnae maintained a local club which worked to further the interests of the School. The other two sororities continued strong, their activities largely professionally oriented, Sigma Alpha Iota sponsoring an annual Christmas musicale at Kilbourn, and Mu Phi Epsilon monthly recitals. The Phi Mu Alpha fraternity Sinfonia remained active, and joined with Mu Phi Epsilon to create a joint symphonette, giving an annual spring concert. But meetings were not exclusively musical; teas, tag parties, pledge banquets, and dances dotted the calendar. To aid their fellow students, Sigma Alpha Iota, Mu Phi Epsilon and Phi Mu Alpha provided scholarship assistance to their members, Mu Phi in the form of two prizes in memory of the beloved counselor of women students, Marion Weed, who died in 1947. Intercampus relations were strengthened (1955) when Phi Mu Alpha joined, the River Campus Hellenic Council. 29
Judging the Eastman School by its end product, the graduates, the Middle States examiners reached the satisfying conclusion that in training musicians for professional careers the School had done much to further musical education in the United States. At least one fifth of all recognized schools and departments of music in the country were, they estimated, administered by Eastman graduates, and not a major American orchestra was without its quota of Eastman alumni, many at first desk positions. As of 1962, Eastman-trained faculty were stationed at colleges and universities in all the fifty states save Alaska, and in Canada and six other foreign countries as well. Accomplishments of alumni of earlier years have been mentioned in previous chapters. Postwar graduates, though with fewer years in which to establish a reputation, were also making names for themselves and bringing credit to their alma mater. Distinguished as conductors and composers despite their comparative youth were Louis G. Lane, 1947, of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra, Evan Whallon, 1948, of the Columbus Symphony and director after 1966 of the Chautauqua Institute of Music, Donald G. Johanos, 1950, of the Dallas Symphony, Ronald R. Ondrejka, 1953, of the Pittsburgh Symphony, and Thomas B. Briccetti, 1957, of the St. Petersburg Symphony. Briccetti, following in the steps of Director Hanson, was awarded the coveted Prix de Rome in 1958, as was, two years earlier, Salvatore J. Martirano, M.M. , 1952, later visiting composer at the University of Illinois, and Richard M. Willis, Jr., M. M.,1951 (and Ph.D.,1965), composer in residence at Baylor University. In a popular vein, composer Charles L. Strouse, 1947, achieved success in the field of musical comedy, with the scores of "Golden Boy" and "Bye Bye Birdie," among others, to his credit.
Among instrumentalists of note were violinist Raymond A. Gniewek, 1953, concertmaster of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, Raymond E. Premru, 1956, bass trombonist with the New Philharmonia of London, Joe H. Thome, 1960, who served as percussionist with the Israel Symphony Orchestra in Tel Aviv, and his classmate, Richard D. Bobo, first tuba player to give a solo recital at Carnegie Hall, for a season with the world-famous Concertgebeouw of Amsterdam and later with the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra. Clarinetist David J. Oppenheim, 1947, after a distinguished career as director of classical records for Columbia and producer of outstanding television programs, in 1969 was named dean of New York University's School of Arts.
Young singers making their mark included Helen L. Bovbjerg, 1958, and Edward C. White, 1959, both in opera in Germany, and Sylvia Friederich, also of the class of 1959, in the San Francisco Opera and the Metropolitan Opera National Company, and winner in 1964 of the substantial "Singer of the Year" award of the National Association of Teachers of Singing. Vocalists Rosemary Crawford Spillman, 1960, and Annette Meriweather, 1962, studied abroad on Rockefeller and Fulbright grants, as did violincellist Donna Magendanz Guarino, who, parenthetically, had the distinction of holding three University of Rochester undergraduate degrees: arts 1958, nursing 1959, and music 1960. 30
Early in the 'sixties the Eastman School paused to celebrate another anniversary, the fortieth of its founding. Like the twenty-fifth before, the birthday was marked by publication of a small volume, this one devoted to the history of the Eastman School in the intervening years. Modestly entitled "A Supplement to The Eastman School of Music, its First Quarter Century," it was edited and to a large degree written by the author of the earlier work, Charles Riker, executive secretary of the School. As did its predecessor, the book contained complete faculty bibliographies and discographies, lists of honors to faculty and alumni, and a directory of alumni on the staff of music schools or universities and in the professional world of music.
Underscoring a new emphasis upon the Music School's membership in the University family, part of the week-long celebration was held on the River Campus in the form of a three-day symposium on "Creativity"--a concept basic to the School's educational philosophy. Enthusiastically attended sessions were devoted to the humanities, with literary critics Erich Heller and H. Northrup Freye as speakers; to science, with mathematician Samuel Eilenberg and bacteriologist Rene Dubros; and to the arts, with art historian Horst W. Jansen and musicologist Edward Lowinsky. On the Eastman campus the occasion was commemorated by an expanded Festival of American Music, including a play at Kilbourn, a joint concert of the Wind Ensemble and the Modern Jazz Quartette at the Eastman Theatre, and performances of Hanson's opera "Merry Mount" and Bernard Rogers' "The Warrior. "
High point of the anniversary week was the dinner on May 2, 1962, for the Eastman School board of managers, faculty, and staff. At its conclusion Provost Hazlett made three announcements of vital importance to the School's future. First, that Howard Hanson, for thirty-eight years the School's director, had been appointed Distinguished Senior Professor, in accordance with the policy established by the trustees the year before of honoring the University's most eminent faculty. Second, that two years hence Hanson would step down, after completion of forty years as director. Third, that instead of so-called "retirement," the Director-emeritus would continue his work as head of a newly-founded Institute of American Music.
Although he had reached statutory retirement age the previous fall, Hanson agreed to continue for two years more to direct the School he had in so large a degree fashioned, in order to give trustees and an advisory committee of Eastman School faculty needed time to find a successor. To locate a creative musician of a stature acceptable to fellow musicians on the faculty, with the added requirement of leadership ability and administrative talent, was no small order. The search was concluded successfully in 1964 [beyond the terminal date of this volume] with the appointment of pianist and, composer Walter Hendl. At that time associate conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and earlier conductor of the Dallas Symphony, alumnus of Curtis Institute in Philadelphia and former member of the faculties of Sarah Lawrence College and the Juilliard School of Music, the new director had a wealth and breadth of experience which assured vigorous and expanding leadership of the Eastman School. 31
The Institute of American Music, Hanson's new commitment, was established by the University to promote American music, both of the past and the Eastman director emeritus present, and to continue the work the had long pursued, the encouragement, publication, and recording of compositions by American musicians. American Composers Concerts and Festivals were placed under the direction of the Institute, and earlier projects, including the reading and performance of works of composers everywhere in the Americas, were resumed. Spaciously housed in Cutler Union, financial support came in part from the already large catalogue of recordings. "To the artist, to the musician, is given the task of creating and expressing beauty--of sensitizing the souls of men...," Hanson had told Eastman students at the opening of a school year long before. As director of the new Institute, he would carry forward his lifetime purpose of helping the American composer achieve this end. 32
Footnotes for Chapter 39
- MSAR-B-3, "The Eastman School of Music." As with the surveys dealing with other sections of the University, this report is a valued tool for the historian. MSAE, 5, 10, 36-38. Members of the Middle States investigating committee, representing the National Association of Schools of Music, were Harrison Keller, president emeritus of the New England Conservatory, and Earl V. Moore, dean of the University of Michigan School of Music. Howard Hanson, Report to Board of Managers, Trustee Records, October 28, 1960. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, October 21, 1960. Trustee Records, September 25, 1954, June 10, 1960. Executive Committee Minutes, April 24, 1953, November 5, 1958. Report, E.S.M. Development Committee, January 26, 1953.
- McKelvey, IV, 269-271. Eastman School Alumni Bulletin, XVIII, June, 1947. President's Report, 1946-1947, 1947-1948. Riker, I. The Score, 1948. Program, Howard Hanson Week, December 2, 1966. Sibley Library Archives. For U. of R. Centennial, see, Chapter XXXIII, pp. [22-21]
- Riker, I, 20. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, September 21, 1945, October 4, 1946, June 4, 1964. President's Report, 1946-1947,1947-1948,1948-1949. Report of Director, E.S.M., 1951-1952. de Kiewiet Papers. Trustee Records, October 20, 1960.
- E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, October 12, 1950. Finance Committee Minutes, June 18,1951, September 18,1951. R D&C, June 30,1951. Report of Director E.S.M., June 3, 1952. de Kiewiet Papers. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to Howard Hanson, April 24, 1952. Ibid. President's Report, 1954-1955, 1955-1956. Trustee Records, June 9, 1961.
- President's Report, 1948-1949, 1949-1950. Report of Director E.S.M.,1950-1951. de Kiewiet Papers. MSAR -B-3, 34. Trustee Records, June 14, 1955. Howard Hanson to Cornelis W. de Kiewiet, April 3, 1952, and de Kiewiet to Hanson, April 24, 1952. de Kiewiet Papers. de Kiewiet to Hanson, August 13, 1952. Ibid. Raymond L. Thompson to de Kiewiet, August 6, 1952. Ibid. Executive Committee Minutes, April 24, 1953, December 18,1953, June 1,1954. Trustee Records, September 25, 1954, June 9, 1961. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, June 4, 1954. Report of Director E.S.M., August 10, 1955. de Kiewiet Papers. ESM Alumni News letter, February, 1959.
- Report of Director E.S.M., 1950-1951.. de Kiewiet Papers. Charles Riker, ed., The Eastman School of Music, 1947-1962 : A Supplement to the Eastman School of Music, Its First Quarter Century. (Rochester, N.Y. , 1963) (hereafter cited as Riker, II), 2-3, 10-12. The writer of the present chapter acknowledges constant indebtedness to this work. RAR, XXII (1960), no. 2, 24. Ibid., XVI (1935), no. 3, 5 and no. 4, 4. Trustee Records, May 11, 1955. Finance Committee Minutes, November 9, 1955, June 19, 1956.
- Trustee Records, October 28, 1960. Campus-Times, VII, September 2, 6, 1961., ESM Alumni Newsletter, IV, October, 1961. Treasurer's Report, 1960-1961, 15. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, May 29, 1963. MSAE, 10.
- McKelvey, IV, 269, 267. Alan Valentine to Arthur M. See, June 24, 1947. Valentine Papers. Executive Committee Minutes, September 27, 1947. New York Times, October 5, 1947.
- Riker, II, 17-18, 21-22. President's Report, 1949-1950. Report, ESM Development Committee, January 26, 1953. MSAR -B-3, 9,11. Trustee Records, February 3, 1951, June 9, 1961. U. of R. Notes, I, December, 1958; 11, February, 1959. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1960. ESM Alumni Newsletter, October, 1961. Eastman School of Music Catalogue, 1968-1969, 147. McKelvey, IV, 270.
- Riker, II, 25-28,14-15. MSAR -B -3, 4, 7, 39. The Score, XXXIII (1958). E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, May 29, 1952, May 29, 1953. President's Report, 1956-1958. "Report [mimeographed] of the President, 1958-1959." Campus-Times, V, February 9, 1960. ESM Alumni Newsletter, February, 1960. R T-U, July 1, 1968. New York Times, November 3,1960. Musical America, LXXXI, May, 1961, 28.
- President's Report, 1951-1952, 1956-1958. Executive Committee Minutes, September 27 , 1952. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, November 9, 1959. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to Howard Hanson, December 1, 1952. de Kiewiet Papers. Musical America, LXXIII, December 1, 1953, 14. Music Educator's Journal, XXI, February, 1963, 60. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 8, 1955. RAR, XVII (1955), no. 1,11. Riker, II, 40-41.
- For reorganization of University Graduate Studies, see, Chapter XXXVII, p. [23-28]. Riker, II, 27,40-44. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, September 27,1957. MSAR -B-3, 7,10-12. MSAE, 6, 7. Trustee Records, November 5, 1958, October 28, 1960.
- Ruth Watanabe, "Historical Introduction to the Sibley Music Library," URLB, XVII, no. 3 (Spring, 1962). MSAR -B-3, 26-28. Report of Director, E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1960. Cornelis-W. de Kiewiet, "The Future of the University," Executive Committee Minutes, November 5, 1958. RAR, XIX (1958), no. 4,10-11. R D&C, June 6, 1954. Librarian's Report, 1950-1951. de Kiewiet Papers. Riker, 11, 13. New York Times, November 22, 1957. MSAE, 40.
- Riker, II, 45-51. MSAR -B-3, 5. URLB, XVII, no. 3 (Spring, 1962). President's Report, 1956-1958. RAR, XVII (1956), no. 5, 8.
- Riker, II, 18-21, 38-39. Report of Director E.S.M., 1945-1946. Valentine Papers. U. of R. Notes, II, no. 2 (March, 1960).
- Riker, II, 28-30, 114-116. "It Ain't Necessarily Oompah!" RAR, XXII (1960), no. 2, 10-11. McKelvey, IV, 347. The Score, XXIX (1954). The Sower, I, December 5, 1956. U. of R. Notes, IV, no. 1 (March, 1962).
- Report of Director E.S.M., 1945-1946. Valentine Papers. President's Report, 1947-1948, 1949-1950. Report of Director E.S.M., 1951-1952. de Kiewiet Papers. Howard Hanson to de Kiewiet, June 1, 1953. Ibid.
- Riker, II, 19,56-58. Report of Director E.S.M., 1945-1946. Valentine Papers. New York Times, April 16, 1946, May 13, 1949, May 2, 1959. Musical Quarterly, XIV (1948), 415; XXXV (1949),126 and 466. Musical America, LXIX, June, 1949, 7 Howard Hanson to Cornelis W. de Kiewiet, June 1, 1953. de Kiewiet Papers. Olin Downes, "Rochester's Annual Festival," New York Times, April 29,1945. R D&C, May 6, 1955. RT-U, May 7, 1955. Cliff Smith, "Jazzmen at the Eastman," R T-U, October 1, 1968. 1960 Festival American Music Bulletin, foreword by George Szell. Sibley Library Archives.
- Harvey Southgate, R D&C, November 25, 1965. New York Times, April 1, 1947. A Tempo, II, January 19, 1948. The Sower, November 12, 1956. The Score, XXIX (1954). McKelvey, IV, 266. A student prank of the Leinsdorf era is worthy of a note. As the cannon sounded near the climax of the Tschiakowsky 1812 Overture, at a 1952 Philharmonic concert, the contents of a feather pillow were spilled from a catwalk above the proscenium onto players and audience below. At the second crash of the cannon more feathers followed, and a mirthful pandemonium ensued. Enterprising students later got hold of tapes of the performance and pressed and sold over 400 records.
- U. of R. Notes, I, no. 1 (December, 1958), no. 3, (May, 1959); III, no. 2 (May, 1961); IV, no. 1 (March, 1962). E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, September 26, 1961. Campus-Times, VII, October 20,1961. ESM Alumni Newsletter, December, 1961. Time, March 9, 1962, 71. Music Educators Journal, XXXVIII, April-May, 1962, 70. R T-U, October 29,1966. RAR, XXII (1961), no. 4, 24. Ibid., XXIV (1962), no. 3, 2 8. Richard L. Kilmer, 1964, "Recollections of the 1962 Tour." Sibley Library Archives. Melinda R. Blahovec, 1965, "Spanning Continents with Music." Ibid. Clifford Spohr, 1963, "The European Tour." Ibid. Howard Hanson, "The Eastman Philharmonia in Europe, " DAR Magazine, XCVII (1963), 88-90. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1960.
- MSAE, 5, 37. Executive Committee Minutes, April 24, 1953, September 21, 1953, June 8,1960. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet to Howard Hanson, January 6, 1953. de Kiewiet Papers. Hanson to de Kiewiet and Board of Managers, May 26, 1953. Ibid. President's Report, 1952-1953. Trustee Records, June 9, 1961, October 20, 1961. Brighton-Pittsford Post, October 7, 1965. R D&C, January 15, 1967.
- Executive Committee Minutes, June 11, 1954, January 29, 1955, February 5, 1959, February 3, 1960, May 3, 1961. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1950, October 8, 1955. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, September 27,1956. President's Report, 1954-1955, 1955-1956. President's Cabinet Minutes, October 1, 1956. Cornelis W. de Kiewiet "The Future of the University," Executive Committee Minutes, November 5, 1958. Trustee Records, February 5, 1960, October 28, 1960, June 9, 1961. Roger D. Lathan to Arthur J. May, May 13, 1968. See, table Alumni giving, Chapter XXXVI, p. .
- Riker, II, 108-112. Trustee Records, February 5, 1960. For financial support of graduate students, see, Chapter XXXVII, p. .
- Executive Committee Minutes, September 27, 1952, June 8, 1960, October 16, 1961. MSAR -B-3, 17-20. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, November 3, 1955, June 6, 1956, May 28, 1958, March 17, 1961. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1960. RAR, XXIV (1962), no. 2, 18. AAUP, U. of R. chapter, "Resolution Regarding Faculty Treatment in the ESM," January 9, 1968. Rhees Library Archives. See, Herbert E. Longnecker to Howard Hanson, memorandum their conversation on outside activities faculty members, February 10, 1954, in which it is pointed out that teachers were paid additional for hours over 20; in some instances, to accommodate student demand for an outstanding teacher, hours ranged up to 35. de Kiewiet Papers.
- Riker, II, 102-107. Executive Committee Minutes, February 1, 1961. R D&C, August 13, 1945, June 24, 1946. ESM Alumni Bulletin, XVII, November, 1945. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, September 21, 1945, September 27, 1947. Undertone, January 13, 1947. A Tempo, December 15, 1947, January 4,1948. R D&C, June 23, 1946, August 13,1947. In the summer of 1947 Flora Burton became the wife of Eastman School secretary and registrar, Arthur Larson; attendants at the wedding were Dr. and Mrs. Howard Hanson, who thus returned the service Mr. Larson had performed at the Hanson wedding the year before. The Score, XXII (1947), XXV (1950), XXVIII (1953), and XXXII (1957).
- R D&C, October 1, 1960, October 3, 1960, December 24,1960 New York Times, October 2, 1960, 52; December 24, 1960, 8. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, October 21, 1960. Conversation with Dean Flora F. Burton, August 20, 1968.
- Undertone, January 13, 1947, February 10, 1947. A Tempo, December 15, 1947, January 19, 1948. The Score, XXII-XXXVII (1947-1963). The Sower, December 5, 1956.
- The Score, XXI-XXXVII (1946-1963). Undertone, I (1947). A Tempo, I, II, (1947, 1948). The Sower, I (1956). Miniature Score, November 19, 1961.
- Alice Smith Boone to A. J. May, January 25, 1967. A Tempo, December 15, 1947. The Score, XXIII (1948), XXIX (1954), XXX (1955).
- MSAE, 40-41. Report of Director E.S.M., Trustee Records, October 28, 1962. As of this date Hanson reported nearly one-fourth member schools of the National Association of Schools of Music directed by ESM graduates; of the three main organizations in the field of music education, ESM alumni presidents of two; of 12 composers awarded Ford Foundation fellowships the past year, 6 ESM alumni.
- Trustee Records, June 9, 1961. Executive Committee Minutes, February 10, 1960, July 5, 1961, April 4, 1962. Program, Creativity Symposium, May 3-6, 1962. Rhees Library Archives. E.S.M. Faculty Minutes, October 2, 1963.
- Riker, 11, 58. R T-U, September 25, 1951.