Publishers' Bindings: 1870-1879

Asymmetry is the dominant characteristic of 1870s cover design. Countering the previous two decades' heavy reliance upon a symmetrical style, designers began to work in a freer way and to use the diagonal as an axis. Shiny black ink was frequently employed, both supported and set off by stampings in gold.

The succession of ruled frames and borders that had once been a staple of cover design largely disappeared. Back covers were often left unadorned, or stamped only in blind. Bevelled boards became commonplace and a fine "silk" grained cloth was introduced. Cover imagery returned to the pictorial, retreating from the very consciously arranged ornamentation of the 1850s-60s. The physical heaviness and the opulence of the 'sixties books was, for the most part, gone. While some design became quite imaginative, overall it became less self-assured.

The craze for all things Japanese that swept through England and America in the 1870s and 1880s is as evident in cover design as in other applied arts. Also prevalent is the influence of the English architect and furniture designer Charles Locke Eastlake. His book Hints on Household Taste, published in London in 1868 (and in Boston four years later), contributed to a revolution in design and a revival of hand craftsmanship. Eastlake style ornaments, stamped in rich black ink, arch over the titles and scroll into the corners of many covers of this decade.

Beginning in 1845, numerous attempts were made to design and produce a machine that would replace the rounding and backing of books by hand. While production may have begun earlier, such a machine is offered in the W. D. Hickok catalog of 1870 and new patents were taken by other companies in 1876, 1877 and 1892. However, it is probable that the rounding and backing machine was not widely found in the trade until the 1890s.